This section reviews the main techniques used to characterize the structure of the ferroelectric-dielectric thin film. It should be noted that the X-ray diffraction section has been discussed in a special chapter, because this technique is paramount in the characterization of these films. For electrical characterization, the leakage currents are discussed in a separate chapter.
This chapter aims to present the main techniques for physicochemical and structural characterization of perovskite dielectric thin films. The principle common to these methods is based on the particle-matter interaction (Figure 5.1). There exists a variety of interaction depending on the nature of the incident or emitted particles (photons, ions, electrons, and atoms) and the incidence energy of the particle beam.
Because of the diversity of particle-matter interactions, there are many techniques for physicochemical analysis of thin films. First, we will focus on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Then we will present some spectroscopies of physicochemical analysis (EDS, AES, RBS, SIMS, and Raman).
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allows ...