Chapter 6Radio-Frequency Characterization 1
Microelectronics is a constantly evolving field aimed at addressing the challenges concerning speed (frequency increase) of operation of the ICs (integrated circuits), reduction in their sizes, and increase in the number of features they suggest [SEM 03].
Thus, new materials are being considered to address some of these objectives and these materials need to be appraised prior to their integration in microelectronics manufacturing industries. These especially include studying the adequacy of the electrical characteristics (permittivity, permeability, etc.) of the materials to cope with the problems described above. In particular, the analysis of these materials as a function of frequency (high-frequency characterization) through various constraints of temperature and a static electric field is essential to promote the development of new and future generations of integrated circuits. Characterization of materials in high frequency (typically from 40 MHz to 40 GHz) in the context of microelectronics requires the use and development of specific high-frequency (HF) techniques that consist of measurements and modeling. In the HF techniques, two main techniques for analyzing circuits are commonly used [KOU 96]: frequency analysis and time domain analysis (time domain reflectometry combined with a return in the frequency domain by TF). In this chapter, we attempt to present the classical methods associated with the analysis ...