6.3. Recent robust technology in biodiesel catalysis

6.3.1. Homogeneous vs. heterogeneous catalysis

In Section, the undesirable homogeneous catalysts used in biodiesel have been discussed in detail. Although transesterification using a conventional alkali-catalyzed process gives high conversion levels of triglycerides to their corresponding methyl esters in short times, the reaction has several drawbacks. Table 6.4 summarizes the drawbacks of homogeneous catalysts and the advantages of heterogeneous catalysts.
Due to these disadvantages, research on the transesterification reaction using heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production has increased over the past decade (Lee and Wilson, 2014). Fig. 6.9 summarizes the classification of catalysts. ...

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