Secure Electronic Voting Protocols

Helger Lipmaa, Cybernetica AS and University of Tartu, Estonia

Introduction

Voting: General Overview

E-Voting: General Setting

Cryptographic Preliminaries

IND-CPA Secure Homomorphic Cryptosystems

Threshold Homomorphic Cryptosystems

How to Prove Equality of Discrete Logarithms?

Commitment Schemes

Efficient RAIE

Bulletin Board

Homomorphic E-Voting Schemes

Guaranteeing Correctness

Multicandidate Voting

Verifiable Shuffle-Based E-Voting Schemes

Furukawa-Sako Protocol

Groth's Verifiable Shuffle

Security Model and Strengthening

Comparison and Practical Consideration

Further Research Topics

Information-Theoretic Privacy for Voters

Eliminating the Random Oracle Assumption

Achieving Coercion Resistance

Human-Oriented Verifiability

Acknowledgments

Glossary

Cross References

References

INTRODUCTION

Since the early 1990s, one of the global buzzwords (or, rather, buzz-letters) has been “e,” short for electronic, which signifies almost everything connected with (inter-)networking. The ubiquity of “e” is caused by the global penetration of the Internet and, in many places of the world, by easier availability of Internet-based services, compared to the traditional services. Numerous e-processes are already taking place, starting from e-banking and ending with (in some countries) e-government. This had led to the situation where one wants to “e-ize” most of the processes and services that can be found in a modern society. After all, moving to the e-services helps ...

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