Parametric types are invariant

For the purposes of illustration, we will consider a popular type hierarchy that is used by some of the OOP literature— the animal kingdom! Everyone loves cats and dogs. I have also included crocodiles here to explain related concepts:

The corresponding code to build such a hierarchy is as follows:

abstract type Vertebrate endabstract type Mammal <: Vertebrate endabstract type Reptile <: Vertebrate endstruct Cat <: Mammal     nameendstruct Dog <: Mammal    nameendstruct Crocodile <: Reptile     nameend

For convenience, we can also define the show function for these new types:, cat::Cat) = print(io, "Cat ...

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