Communication is a requirement for business operations, government functions, and human-to-human interaction to exist. Without communication, none of these will be possible. From simple conversations to the most advanced encrypted communications, information must transit from person to person. The vast majority of communications are legitimate for human relationships; however, some communications either facilitate criminal acts or are actually criminal in nature. The focus of uncovering covert and anonymous communications is to undermine the criminal elements of communications in order to prevent, detect, and reduce crime.