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Influence without Authority, Second Edition by David L. Bradford, Allan R. Cohen

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Chapter 2. The Influence Model: Trading What They Want for What You've Got (Using Reciprocity and Exchange)

I have done enough for you, Apollo; now it's your turn to do something for me.

Rough translation of inscription on a Greek statue of the God Apollo, 700–675 b.c., demonstrating ancientunderstanding of the concept of reciprocity.[1]

It is not always evident when you are going to make a withdrawal from the favor bank of politics, . . . but it is always obvious you are making a deposit.

From "Giuliani Plays Major Role on Bush Campaign Trail," Jennifer Steinhauer, New York Times (August 12, 2004), p. A1, demonstrating contemporary understanding of reciprocity.

To address the kinds of challenges we have described in Chapter 1, how can you influence those over whom you have no authority? The short answer is that to have influence, you need resources that other people want, so that you can trade for what you want. This key to influence is based on a principle that underlies all human interaction, the Law of Reciprocity.

Ignore the Law of Reciprocityat Your Peril

Reciprocity is the almost universal belief that people should be paid back for what they do—that one good (or bad) turn deserves another.[10] This belief about behavior, evident in primitive and not-so-primitive societies all around the world, carries over into organizational life. One form it takes in work settings is, "an honest day's work for an honest day's pay."

People generally expect that, over time, those people they have ...

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