Chapter 2. Processing Environment
All processes have a processing environment (not to be confused with environment variables that are, as we will see, just one part of the processing environment). The processing environment consists of a unique set of information and conditions that is determined by the current state of the system and by the parent of the process. A process can access processing environment information and, in some cases, modify it. This is accomplished either directly or by using the appropriate system calls or library functions.
Associated with each process is a unique positive integer identification number ...