# CHAPTER 6

*The Operational Amplifier*

**IN HIS CHAPTER**

**6.1** Introduction

**6.2** The Operational Amplifier

**6.3** The Ideal Operational Amplifier

**6.4** Nodal Analysis of Circuits Containing Ideal Operational Amplifiers

**6.5** Design Using Operational Amplifiers

**6.6** Operational Amplifier Circuits and Linear Algebraic Equations

**6.7** Characteristics of Practical Operational Amplifiers

**6.8** Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Using MATLAB

**6.9** Using PSpice to Analyze Op Amp Circuits

**6.10** How Can We Check … ?

**6.11 DESIGN EXAMPLE**—Transducer Interface Circuit

**6.12** Summary

Problems

PSpice Problems

Design Problems

## 6.1 *Introduction*

This chapter introduces another circuit element, the operational amplifier, or op amp. We will learn how to analyze and design electric circuits that contain op amps. In particular, we will see that:

- Several models, of varying accuracy and complexity, are available for operational amplifiers. Simple models are easy to use. Accurate models are more complicated. The simplest model of the operational amplifier is the ideal operational amplifier.
- Circuits that contain ideal operational amplifiers are analyzed by writing and solving node equations.
- Operational amplifiers can be used to build circuits that perform mathematical operations. Many of these circuits are widely used and have been named. Figure 6.5-1 provides a catalog of some useful operational amplifier circuits.
- Practical operational ...