# Energy Storage Elements

IN THIS CHAPTER

7.1 Introduction

7.2 Capacitors

7.3 Energy Storage in a Capacitor

7.4 Series and Parallel Capacitors

7.5 Inductors

7.6 Energy Storage in an Inductor

7.7 Series and Parallel Inductors

7.8 Initial Conditions of Switched Circuits

7.9 Operational Amplifier Circuits and Linear Differential Equations

7.10 Using MATLAB to Plot Capacitor or Inductor Voltage and Current

7.11 How Can We Check … ?

7.12 DESIGN EXAMPLE—Integrator and Switch

7.13 Summary

Problems

Design Problems

## 7.1 Introduction

This chapter introduces two more circuit elements, the capacitor and the inductor. The constitutive equations for the devices involve either integration or differentiation. Consequently:

• Electric circuits that contain capacitors and/or inductors are represented by differential equations. Circuits that do not contain capacitors or inductors are represented by algebraic equations. We say that circuits containing capacitors and/or inductors are dynamic circuits, whereas circuits that do not contain capacitors or inductors are static. circuits.
• Circuits that contain capacitors and/or inductors are able to store energy.
• Circuits that contain capacitors and/or inductors have memory. The voltages and currents at a particular time depend not only on other voltages at currents at that same instant of time but also on previous values of those currents and voltages. ...

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