IoT and Edge Computing for Architects - Second Edition

Book description

Learn to design, implement, and secure your IoT infrastructure. Revised and expanded for edge computing.

Key Features

  • Build a complete IoT system that's the best fit for your organization
  • Learn about different concepts, tech, and trade-offs in the IoT architectural stack
  • Understand the theory and implementation of each element that comprises IoT design

Book Description

Industries are embracing IoT technologies to improve operational expenses, product life, and people's well-being. An architectural guide is needed if you want to traverse the spectrum of technologies needed to build a successful IoT system, whether that's a single device or millions of IoT devices.

IoT and Edge Computing for Architects, Second Edition encompasses the entire spectrum of IoT solutions, from IoT sensors to the cloud. It examines modern sensor systems, focusing on their power and functionality. It also looks at communication theory, paying close attention to near-range PAN, including the new Bluetooth® 5.0 specification and mesh networks. Then, the book explores IP-based communication in LAN and WAN, including 802.11ah, 5G LTE cellular, Sigfox, and LoRaWAN. It also explains edge computing, routing and gateways, and their role in fog computing, as well as the messaging protocols of MQTT 5.0 and CoAP.

With the data now in internet form, you'll get an understanding of cloud and fog architectures, including the OpenFog standards. The book wraps up the analytics portion with the application of statistical analysis, complex event processing, and deep learning models. The book then concludes by providing a holistic view of IoT security, cryptography, and shell security in addition to software-defined perimeters and blockchains.

What you will learn

  • Understand the role and scope of architecting a successful IoT deployment
  • Scan the landscape of IoT technologies, from sensors to the cloud and more
  • See the trade-offs in choices of protocols and communications in IoT deployments
  • Become familiar with the terminology needed to work in the IoT space
  • Broaden your skills in the multiple engineering domains necessary for the IoT architect
  • Implement best practices to ensure reliability, scalability, and security in your IoT infrastructure

Who this book is for

This book is for architects, system designers, technologists, and technology managers who want to understand the IoT ecosphere, technologies, and trade-offs, and develop a 50,000-foot view of IoT architecture. An understanding of the architectural side of IoT is necessary.

Table of contents

  1. Preface
    1. Who this book is for
    2. What this book covers
      1. To get the most out of this book
      2. Download the color images
      3. Conventions used
    3. Get in touch
      1. Reviews
  2. IoT and Edge Computing Definition and Use Cases
    1. History of the IoT
    2. IoT potential
    3. Definition of the Internet of Things
      1. Industry and manufacturing
        1. Industrial and manufacturing IoT use cases
      2. Consumer
        1. Consumer IoT use cases
      3. Retail, finance, and marketing
        1. Retail, finance, and marketing IoT use cases
      4. Healthcare
        1. Healthcare IoT use cases
      5. Transportation and logistics
        1. Transportation and logistics IoT use cases
      6. Agricultural and environment
        1. Agricultural and environmental IoT use cases
      7. Energy
        1. Energy IoT use cases
      8. Smart city
        1. Smart city IoT use cases
      9. Military and government
        1. Government and military IoT use cases
    4. Example use case and deployment
      1. Case study – Telemedicine palliative care
        1. Requirements
        2. Implementation
      2. Use case retrospective
    5. Summary
  3. IoT Architecture and Core IoT Modules
    1. A connected ecosystem
      1. IoT versus machine-to-machine versus SCADA
      2. The value of a network and Metcalfe's and Beckstrom's laws
      3. IoT and edge architecture
      4. Role of an architect
    2. Part 1 – Sensing and power
    3. Part 2 – Data communication
    4. Part 3 – Edge computing
    5. Part 4 – Compute, analytics, and machine learning
    6. Part 5 – Threat and security in IoT
    7. Summary
  4. Sensors, Endpoints, and Power Systems
    1. Sensing devices
      1. Thermocouples and temperature sensing
        1. Thermocouples
        2. Resistance temperature detectors
        3. Thermistors
        4. Temperature sensor summary
      2. Hall effect sensors and current sensors
      3. Photoelectric sensors
      4. PIR sensors
      5. LiDAR and active sensing systems
      6. MEMS sensors
        1. MEMS accelerometers and gyroscopes
        2. MEMS microphones
        3. MEMS pressure sensors
    2. High performance IoT endpoints
      1. Vision systems
      2. Sensor fusion
      3. Output devices
    3. Functional examples (putting it all together)
      1. Functional example – TI SensorTag CC2650
      2. Sensor to controller
    4. Energy sources and power management
      1. Power management
      2. Energy harvesting
        1. Solar harvesting
        2. Piezo-mechanical harvesting
        3. RF energy harvesting
        4. Thermal harvesting
      3. Energy storage
        1. Energy and power models
        2. Batteries
        3. Supercapacitors
        4. Radioactive power sources
        5. Energy storage summary and other forms of power
    5. Summary
  5. Communications and Information Theory
    1. Communication theory
      1. RF energy and theoretical range
      2. RF interference
    2. Information theory
      1. Bitrate limits and the Shannon-Hartley theorem
      2. Bit error rate
      3. Narrowband versus wideband communication
    3. The radio spectrum
      1. Governing structure
    4. Summary
  6. Non-IP Based WPAN
    1. 802.15 standards
    2. Bluetooth
      1. Bluetooth history
      2. Bluetooth 5 communication process and topologies
      3. Bluetooth 5 stack
        1. Bluetooth stack elements
        2. Bluetooth 5 PHY and interference
      4. BR/EDR operation
      5. BLE roles
      6. BLE operation
      7. Bluetooth profiles
      8. BR/EDR security
        1. BLE security
      9. Beaconing
      10. Bluetooth 5 range and speed enhancement
      11. Bluetooth mesh
        1. Bluetooth mesh
        2. Bluetooth mesh topology
        3. Bluetooth mesh addressing modes
        4. Bluetooth mesh provisioning
      12. Bluetooth 5.1 technology
        1. Bluetooth 5.1 direction finding
        2. Bluetooth 5.1 GATT caching
        3. Bluetooth 5.1 randomized advertising channel indexing
        4. Bluetooth 5.1 periodic advertising sync transfer
        5. Bluetooth 5.1 minor enhancements
    3. IEEE 802.15.4
      1. IEEE 802.15.4 architecture
      2. IEEE 802.15.4 topology
      3. IEEE 802.15.4 address modes and packet structure
      4. IEEE 802.15.4 start-up sequence
      5. IEEE 802.15.4 security
    4. Zigbee
      1. Zigbee history
      2. Zigbee overview
      3. Zigbee PHY and MAC (and difference from IEEE 802.15.4)
      4. Zigbee protocol stack
      5. Zigbee addressing and packet structure
      6. Zigbee mesh routing
        1. Zigbee association
      7. Zigbee security
    5. Z-Wave
      1. Z-Wave overview
      2. Z-Wave protocol stack
      3. Z-Wave addressing
      4. Z-Wave topology and routing
    6. Summary
  7. IP-Based WPAN and WLAN
    1. TCP/IP
    2. WPAN with IP – 6LoWPAN
    3. IEEE 802.11 protocols and WLAN
      1. IEEE 802.11 suite of protocols and comparison
      2. IEEE 802.11 architecture
      3. IEEE 802.11 spectrum allocation
      4. IEEE 802.11 modulation and encoding techniques
      5. IEEE 802.11 MIMO
      6. IEEE 802.11 packet structure
      7. IEEE 802.11 operation
      8. IEEE 802.11 security
      9. IEEE 802.11ac
      10. IEEE 802.11p vehicle-to-vehicle
      11. IEEE 802.11ah
      12. 6LoWPAN topologies
      13. 6LoWPAN protocol stack
      14. Mesh addressing and routing
      15. Header compression and fragmentation
      16. Neighbor discovery
      17. 6LoWPAN security
    4. WPAN with IP – Thread
      1. Thread architecture and topology
      2. The Thread protocol stack
      3. Thread routing
      4. Thread addressing
      5. Neighbor discovery
    5. Summary
  8. Long-Range Communication Systems and Protocols (WAN)
    1. Cellular connectivity
      1. Governance models and standards
      2. Cellular access technologies
      3. 3GPP user equipment categories
      4. 4G LTE spectrum allocation and bands
      5. 4G LTE topology and architecture
      6. 4G LTE E-UTRAN protocol stack
      7. 4G LTE geographical areas, dataflow, and handover procedures
      8. 4G LTE packet structure
      9. Cat-0, Cat-1, Cat-M1, and NB-IoT
        1. LTE Cat-0
        2. LTE Cat-1
        3. LTE Cat-M1 (eMTC)
        4. LTE Cat-NB
      10. Multefire, CBRS, and shared spectrum cellular
      11. 5G
        1. 5G frequency distribution
        2. 5G RAN architecture
        3. 5G Core architecture
        4. 5G security and registration
        5. Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (URLCC)
        6. Fine-grain time-division duplexing (TDD) and low-latency HARQ
        7. Network slicing
        8. 5G energy considerations
    2. LoRa and LoRaWAN
      1. LoRa physical layer
      2. LoRaWAN MAC layer
      3. LoRaWAN topology
      4. LoRaWAN summary
    3. Sigfox
      1. Sigfox physical layer
      2. Sigfox MAC layer
      3. Sigfox protocol stack
      4. Sigfox topology
    4. Summary
  9. Edge Computing
    1. Edge purpose and definition
    2. Edge use cases
    3. Edge hardware architectures
      1. Processors
        1. Speed and power
        2. Registers
        3. Instruction set architectures (ISAs)
        4. Endianness
        5. Processor parallelism
        6. Caches and memory hierarchy
        7. Other processor characteristics
      2. DRAM and volatile memory
      3. Storage and non-volatile memory
        1. Storage classes and interfaces
        2. NAND flash memory design and considerations
      4. Low-speed IO
      5. High-speed IO
      6. Hardware assist and coprocessing
      7. Boot and security modules
      8. Examples of edge hardware
      9. Ingress protection
    4. Operating systems
      1. Operating system choice points
      2. Typical boot process
      3. Operating system tuning
    5. Edge platforms
      1. Virtualization
      2. Containers
        1. Container architecture
        2. An Edge platform ‒ Microsoft Azure IoT Edge
    6. Use cases for edge computing
      1. Ambient computing
      2. Synthetic sensing
    7. Summary
  10. Edge Routing and Networking
    1. TCP/IP network functions at the edge
      1. Routing functions
      2. PAN-to-WAN bridging
      3. Failover and out-of-band management
    2. Edge-level network security
      1. VLANs
      2. VPN
      3. Traffic shaping and QoS
      4. Security functions
      5. Metrics and analytics
    3. Software-defined networking
      1. SDN architecture
      2. Traditional internetworking
      3. SDN benefits
    4. Summary
  11. Edge to Cloud Protocols
    1. Protocols
    2. MQTT
      1. MQTT publish-subscribe
      2. MQTT architecture details
      3. MQTT state transitions
      4. MQTT packet structure
      5. MQTT data types
      6. MQTT communication formats
      7. MQTT 3.1.1 working example
    3. MQTT-SN
      1. MQTT-SN architecture and topology
      2. Transparent and aggregating gateways
      3. Gateway advertisement and discovery
      4. Differences between MQTT and MQTT-SN
      5. Choosing a MQTT broker
    4. Constrained Application Protocol
      1. CoAP architecture details
      2. CoAP messaging formats
      3. CoAP usage example
    5. Other protocols
      1. STOMP
      2. AMQP
    6. Protocol summary and comparison
    7. Summary
  12. Cloud and Fog Topologies
    1. Cloud services model
      1. NaaS
      2. SaaS
      3. PaaS
      4. IaaS
    2. Public, private, and hybrid cloud
      1. Private cloud
      2. Public cloud
      3. Hybrid cloud
    3. The OpenStack cloud architecture
      1. Keystone – identity and service management
      2. Glance – image service
      3. Nova compute
      4. Swift – object storage
      5. Neutron – networking services
      6. Cinder – block storage
      7. Horizon
      8. Heat – orchestration (optional)
      9. Ceilometer – telemetry (optional)
    4. Constraints of cloud architectures for IoT
      1. Latency effect
    5. Fog computing
      1. The Hadoop philosophy for fog computing
      2. Comparing fog, edge, cloud, and mist computing
      3. OpenFog reference architecture
        1. Application services
        2. Application support
        3. Node management and software backplane
        4. Hardware virtualization
        5. OpenFog node security
        6. Network
        7. Accelerators
        8. Compute
        9. Storage
        10. Hardware platform infrastructure
        11. Protocol abstraction
        12. Sensors, actuators, and control systems
      4. EdgeX
        1. EdgeX architecture
        2. EdgeX projects and additional components
      5. Amazon Greengrass and Lambda
      6. Fog topologies
    6. Summary
  13. Data Analytics and Machine Learning in the Cloud and Edge
    1. Basic data analytics in IoT
      1. Top-level cloud pipeline
      2. Rules engines
      3. Ingestion – streaming, processing, and data lakes
      4. Complex event processing
      5. Lambda architecture
      6. Sector use cases
    2. Machine learning in IoT
      1. A brief history of AI and machine learning milestones
      2. Machine learning models
      3. Classification
      4. Regression
      5. Random forest
      6. Bayesian models
      7. Convolutional neural networks
        1. First layer and filters
        2. Max pooling and subsampling
        3. The fundamental deep learning model
        4. CNN examples
        5. Vernacular of CNNs
        6. Forward propagation, CNN training, and backpropagation
      8. Recurrent neural networks
      9. Training and inference for IoT
    3. IoT data analytics and machine learning comparison and assessment
    4. Summary
  14. IoT and Edge Security
    1. Cybersecurity vernacular
      1. Attack and threat terms
      2. Defense terms
    2. Anatomy of IoT cyber attacks
      1. Mirai
      2. Stuxnet
      3. Chain Reaction
    3. Physical and hardware security
      1. RoT
      2. Key management and trusted platform modules
      3. Processor and memory space
      4. Storage security
      5. Physical security
    4. Shell security
    5. Cryptography
      1. Symmetric cryptography
      2. Asymmetric cryptography
      3. Cryptographic hash (authentication and signing)
      4. Public key infrastructure
      5. Network stack – Transport Layer Security
    6. Software-Defined Perimeter
      1. SDP architecture
    7. Blockchains and cryptocurrencies in IoT
      1. Bitcoin (blockchain-based)
      2. IOTA and directed acyclical graph-based (DAG) trust models
    8. Government regulations and intervention
      1. US Congressional Bill – Internet of Things (IoT) Cybersecurity Improvement Act of 2017
      2. Other governmental bodies
    9. IoT security best practices
      1. Holistic security
      2. Security checklist
    10. Summary
  15. Consortiums and Communities
    1. PAN consortia
      1. Bluetooth
      2. Thread Group
      3. Zigbee Alliance
      4. Miscellaneous
    2. Protocol consortia
      1. Open Connectivity Foundation and Allseen Alliance
      2. OASIS
      3. Object Management Group
      4. OMA Specworks
      5. Miscellaneous
    3. WAN consortia
      1. Weightless SIG
      2. LoRa Alliance
      3. Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
      4. Wi-Fi Alliance
    4. Fog and edge consortia
      1. OpenFog
      2. Eclipse Foundation and EdgeX Foundry
    5. Umbrella organizations
      1. Industrial Internet Consortium
      2. IEEE IoT
      3. Miscellaneous
    6. US government IoT and security entities
    7. Industrial and Commercial IoT and Edge
      1. Commercial and industrial sensor and MEMS manufacturers and vendors
      2. Silicon, microprocessor, and component manufacturers
      3. PAN communication companies
      4. WAN technology companies
      5. Edge computing and solutions companies
      6. Operating system, middleware, and software companies
      7. Cloud providers
    8. Summary
  16. Other Books You May Enjoy
  17. Index

Product information

  • Title: IoT and Edge Computing for Architects - Second Edition
  • Author(s): Perry Lea
  • Release date: March 2020
  • Publisher(s): Packt Publishing
  • ISBN: 9781839214806