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Java Pocket Guide, 4th Edition by Robert Liguori, Patricia Liguori

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Chapter 10. Development Basics

The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) provides the backbone for running Java applications. The Java Development Kit (JDK) provides all of the components and necessary resources to develop Java applications.

Java Runtime Environment

The JRE is a collection of software that allows a computer system to run a Java application. The software collection consists of the Java Virtual Machines (JVMs) that interpret Java bytecode into machine code, standard class libraries, user interface toolkits, and a variety of utilities.

Java Development Kit

The JDK is a programming environment for compiling, debugging, and running Java applications and Java Beans. The JDK includes the JRE with the addition of the Java programming language and additional development tools and tool APIs. Oracle’s JDK supports macOS, Solaris, Linux (Oracle, Suse, Red Hat, Ubuntu, and Debian [on ARM]), and Microsoft Windows (Server 2008 R2, Server 2012, Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, and Windows 10). Additional operating-system and special-purpose JVMs, JDKs, and JREs are freely available from Java Virtual Machine.

Table 10-1 lists versions of the JDK provided by Oracle. Download the most recent version at Oracle’s website, where you can also download older versions.

Table 10-1. Java Development Kits
Java Development Kits Codename Release Packages Classes

Java SE 9 with JDK 1.9.0

---

2017

~225

~4,413

Java SE 8 with JDK 1.8.0

---

2014

217

4,240

Java SE 7 with JDK 1.7.0

Dolphin

2011 ...

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