Chapter 8. Functions

This chapter covers JavaScript functions. Functions are a fundamental building block for JavaScript programs and a common feature in almost all programming languages. You may already be familiar with the concept of a function under a name such as subroutine or procedure.

A function is a block of JavaScript code that is defined once but may be executed, or invoked, any number of times. JavaScript functions are parameterized: a function definition may include a list of identifiers, known as parameters, that work as local variables for the body of the function. Function invocations provide values, or arguments, for the function’s parameters. Functions often use their argument values to compute a return value that becomes the value of the function-invocation expression. In addition to the arguments, each invocation has another value—the invocation context—that is the value of the this keyword.

If a function is assigned to a property of an object, it is known as a method of that object. When a function is invoked on or through an object, that object is the invocation context or this value for the function. Functions designed to initialize a newly created object are called constructors. Constructors were described in §6.2 and will be covered again in Chapter 9.

In JavaScript, functions are objects, and they can be manipulated by programs. JavaScript can assign functions to variables and pass them to other functions, for example. Since functions are objects, you ...

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