Decision makers need to factor into their present decisions the “future that has already happened.”1
Short-, intermediate-, andlong-range plans
Single-use and standing-use plans
Top-down and bottom-up plans
Contingency and crisis plans
Inventory of alternatives
As noted in Chapter 1, Management and the Arts, planning is one of the primary functions of management. However, as the above quote also notes, the decisions made in planning for an organization are often a product of changes that have already taken place in the world. Thus, ...