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Microwave Propagation and Remote Sensing by Pranab Kumar Karmakar

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7

Attenuation by Hydrometeors Other than Rain

7.1 Snow

Snow is a mixture of air and ice crystals. The information about size distribution of snowflakes or liquid water content is very scanty. The international commission on snow and ice in the year 1949 classified the solid snow precipitation into ten categories. They are (1) plates, (2) stellar crystals, (3) columns, (4) needles, (5) spatial dendrites, (6) capped columns, (7) irregular particles, (8) graupel (soft hail), (9) ice pallets, and (10) hail. According to their sizes, they are categorized into five groups ranging from very small (0–0.49 mm) to very large (>4 mm). Among these the mean diameter of the largest crystal is presented in Table 7.1 for air temperature between –8°C and ...

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