We’re going to learn how to develop mobile web applications. Note the word “web.” This book focuses on web application development for mobile devices like Android, iPod, iPhone, BlackBerry, and tablets. This book is not about native application development requiring the iOS or Android SDK. Nothing we will learn is operating system specific.
In other words, what we learn will not only work on the iPhone, the iPad, and Android devices, but also on other mobile platforms, including Firefox OS and Windows Phone, and on modern desktop browsers and other devices that have a modern browser (such as gaming consoles like the Wii). Yes, this book is focusing on developing for mobile, but what you learn here is usable on a plethora of devices, big and small, as long as that device has a browser that adheres to modern web standards.
The abilities of applications on native platforms stayed rather consistent for over 10 years, but the past several years have seen the web platform increase its ability to handle web applications, with almost the same fidelity as native applications.
The iPhone added canvas, application cache, database, and SVG. Safari 4.0 included those features, adding video, audio, and web workers. Later in 2009, we saw the addition of geolocation and canvas—not just to the iPhone, but to Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Android.
With web browsers, we’ve been able to take advantage of HTML, CSS, the DOM, SVG, and XHR for years. In this book, we expand our horizons to include HTML5 and CSS3: the skills needed to make web applications that are comparable to native applications, features that are already supported in modern mobile and desktop browsers.
Yes, you can sell native iPhone applications in the App Store, which sounds cool. You can sell native Android applications via Google Play, Amazon, or a plethora of other online venues. But with web-based applications, you can bypass the app stores with their approval processes, annual fees, and sales fees, and market directly to your consumer base via your website and through other marketing channels. Yes, you miss the very slim opportunity of having your application noticed among the hundreds of thousands of applications available through the app store, but the benefits of web application versus native application development greatly outweigh the costs.
With web applications, it is easier to build and iterate. You can make changes to your live web application whenever you want—multiple times a day if need be.
With a native iPhone app for example, you have the 3-week+ approval process. Once your application is approved and pushed to production, you have to wait for users to sync and update their application. With web applications built using CSS3 and HTML5, your changes are live basically immediately, but can also be accessible when the user is offline—just like native applications.
If you accidentally forget to include your boss or misspell your mother’s name in the credits of your native application, those oopsies are going to haunt you not only until you are able to push the correction through the app store, but they’ll stick around until the user syncs your app with an updated iTunes download. That could be a long time.
I am skilled at becoming “obsolete.” I never updated from the original versions of Bump, Twitterific, and Gowalla on my original iPhone. I assume I am not the only one who has “antique” iPhone applications. Don’t assume that your native application users update their applications.
By using HTML5 to develop your web applications, your application can be available offline, just like a native application. Although the native application can take weeks to update, the web application can be forced to update itself the next time your application is used when connected to the Internet. We’ll cover this when we discuss offline applications in Chapter 6.
HTML5 web application development takes advantage of the HTML and CSS skills you already know. We’re building upon your existing skills rather than asking you to learn completely new ones. Not a different technology, not a different platform. Not a new language that only works on one platform!
Using browser markup of HTML5 and CSS3 gives you the potential to be cross-platform over time. Native iPhone applications work on the iPod touch and on ithe Phone, and most likely on the iPad, but not on Windows, BlackBerry, or Android (and they never will). Native Android applications work only on Android devices, not on iOS-based products. Native GoogleTV applications will never work on iOS either. Et cetera. Unlike native applications, your HTML5/CSS3 web applications can be made to work on all WebKit, IE10, Blink, Opera Mobile (not mini), and Firefox mobile browsers. And your web applications will work on other devices that have modern browsers that by default support features of HTML5 and CSS3.
Web applications built with HTML5 and CSS3, for the most part, already work in modern browsers. While not supported in Internet Explorer 8 or earlier versions, Internet Explorer 9 has support for some, but not all, of HTML5 and CSS3. Internet Explorer 10 has come a long, long way in supporting many features in the ever-evolving specifications.
Since the release of the iPhone SDK in 2008, most of the applications for the iPhone have been created as native apps. Before the release of the SDK, we only had web applications. People moved from web applications to native applications because HTML5 just wasn’t ready. Now that mobile browsers support many HTML5 APIs, we are able to create fast, responsive, and visually appealing web applications.
One last reason: video! The iPhone, iPod, and iPad do not support
Flash, and they never will. However, all iOS devices have the Safari
WebKit browser that supports the HTML5
<video> element, which we’ll discuss in
With the proliferation of standards-compliant and forward-thinking browsers, which handheld devices have helped disseminate, we now have the opportunity to move the discipline of web development forward into the twenty-first century.
While learning the lessons of this book, I want you to forget about old versions of Internet Explorer. The Web is moving forward, and it’s moving forward fast. Have you been holding back from learning and using CSS3 and HTML5 because of IE6, IE7, or even IE8? These old browsers are not found on mobile devices, and their popularity on desktop computers is dwindling. Stop holding yourself back.
Because of the continued omnipresence of legacy, non-standards-compliant browsers—most notably, Internet Explorer 6 through 8—web developers have been held back from developing kickass websites. Catering to the whims and quirks of IE6 and IE7 forced us to use archaic code; it prevented us from implementing, without some trepidation, advanced older standards as well as not-so-new proposed standards. In this book, we’ll learn all about technologies that we can use because we don’t have to cater to behind-the-times browsers.
As you work through this book, take HTML5 and CSS3 as far as you can. Don’t think: “Oh, this may not work in browser X.” Instead think: “This is awesome!” Learn the skills. Learn the syntax. You’ll be ahead of the game when all browsers eventually support these newer features. And, in the meantime, you’ll have learned some major skills and possibly created a kickass web application.
This book focuses on designing and developing websites for mobile browsers, providing us the opportunity to use the most cutting-edge web technologies. We’ve decided that we don’t need to think about archaic browsers (you’re with me on that one, right?). However, I like my websites and web applications to render correctly (though not necessarily identically) on all browsers. I assume you do, too. When relevant, we’ll briefly discuss quirks, tips, and tricks to handle the feature at hand in other common, nonmobile browsers.
Within a week of the original iPhone launch in June 2007, the first iPhoneDevCamp was held in San Francisco, CA. When the iPhone was originally released, there was no SDK available. Therefore, all the original iPhone applications were web based.
At the first iPhoneDevCamp, participants developed their own
documentation, helping each other gain the skills to develop fun (all
web-based) iPhone applications. Originally, there was no default
onOrientationChange event. Instead,
we added a timer to regularly check the phone’s orientation, and
For the first nine months of the iPhone’s life, there were only web applications and Apple-controlled native applications: there was no native iPhone app development in the wild. Because of bandwidth limitations and a dearth of Apple developer documentation, iPhone web applications didn’t skyrocket. Because of the inability of the iPhone WebKit Safari browser to access native iPhone OS features, web application development for the iPhone did not take off. Application development for the iPhone finally skyrocketed with the release of the SDK.
The iPhone SDK was first released on March 6, 2008. The iPhone SDK allowed third-party (i.e., non-Apple) developers to make applications for the iPhone (and later the iPod touch and iPad), with availability in the App Store following in July of 2008. With the release of the SDK, and the opening of the App Store, not to mention the ability for developers to make money from selling their Apps in the App Store, the focus of iPhone development quickly and wholeheartedly switched to building native iPhone applications.
The fact that the focus of iPhone application development has been mostly on the development of native iPhone applications since the release of the SDK makes sense to a great extent—but we’re going to change that! In 2008, the limitations of web-application over native-application development discouraged focusing on web apps, as the following lists show:
10 MB file-size limit in iPhone Safari
Lack of storage for data via web apps, and very limited cache
Lack of support for most CSS3 and HTML5 features in not only Safari for the iPhone, but all browsers
Ease of development using XCode
Ability to sell applications in the App Store
In 2013, however, the tables have turned. The arguments for developing web apps versus native apps has caught up, if not surpassed, the arguments against, as the following lists show:
Easier to build and iterate (developers can push multiple times a day, providing for quick iteration)
Uses existing skills in HTML and CSS (building upon skills rather than requiring developers to master completely different ones)
Same technology, same platform
Potential to be cross-platform
3-week+ approval process for distributing in the App Store
Risk of censorship of content and noninclusion by application stores
$99+ annual Apple Developer membership fee, plus 30% sales fee
HTML5 has been in the works for many years, since efforts began in 2004 on what was originally called Web Applications 1.0. While not finalized, some parts are fairly complete and already supported—oftentimes fully supported—by modern browsers. Modern, or A-grade, browsers include Safari, Chrome, Internet Explorer 10+, Firefox, and Opera. IE8 and older is not in this list. IE9 has some HTML5 support, but is a browser that is holding back the Web. So, while not all browsers provide support for HTML5, it is supported by all WebKit/Blink browsers, Opera Mobile, Firefox OS, and the new Windows phones. It is finally time to start playing with HTML5.
HTML5 is an umbrella term describing the new web API standards, some of which are in the HTML5 specification (e.g., drag-and-drop), and some that aren’t (e.g., geolocation).
With HTML5 and the associated APIs, we are no longer limited to native applications. Between the specification for HTML5 and those of the associated APIs, we could kill a tree if we wanted to print it all. I won’t describe all of the features in this book, but I will cover some of the more useful ones you can implement today, such as the subjects covered in the following sections.
HTML5 provides new tags used for defining logical groups of tags
or sections in your markup. Grouping semantically, instead of using the
<span> elements to define headers,
footers, navigation, etc., assists search engines in defining your site
structure. We’ll cover the new grouping elements in Chapter 3.
With HTML5, images no longer have to be embedded objects. HTML5
<canvas> as native HTML elements, which are
enhanced with CSS and accessible via the DOM. By adding either element,
the browser provides a blank canvas in which you can “draw”
programmatically. We will cover
<canvas> in Chapter 5.
To date, all browser video and audio have required plug-ins. With
HTML5, we now have native browser support for video and audio. And
they’re scriptable! HTML5 browsers natively support
mp4 formats. With the DOM, you can control
video and audio, including muting, forwarding, and stopping. With CSS,
you can style the players. While iOS devices may never support Flash or
Silverlight, all mobile browsers support HTML5 video and audio. We will
<audio> in Chapter 5.
Geolocation is not part of the HTML5 specifications, but rather an associated API, and a very useful module at that. Geolocation is the identification of the geographic location of mobile and desktop devices. The geolocation API is covered in Chapter 6.
Stating the obvious: phones are mobile devices. Internet service goes in and out (especially for those of us bound to use AT&T). The HTML5 application cache, local storage, and database APIs enable the use and enjoyment of web applications even when AT&T drops you. The APIs that enable your applications to work offline are discussed in Chapter 6.
CSS3 provides us with some new great features. CSS3 selectors, described in Chapter 7, provide us with a method of targeting just about every element on the page without adding a single class, including media queries to enable responsive web development. RGBA and HSLA are new alpha-transparent color values, which are discussed in Chapter 8, along with other value types. For designers and prototypers, Chapters 9 and 10 will likely be the most exciting chapters of the book, covering new and not-so-new CSS3 features, including:
Web fonts allow you to use font faces other than the traditional
half dozen web-safe fonts. Different browsers have
different implementations, including different support for iPhone versus
desktop. While all smartphone browsers support
@font-face, it is a sans-serif font—Helvetica,
Roboto, or whatever the default operating system font is—that should be
the font of choice when developing for mobile. I can’t encourage
requiring mobile users to download huge font files. I do encourage using
smaller icon fonts in Chapter 11, but web fonts are
not largely covered in this book. If you are interested in learning more
about web fonts for desktop, there is a link in the online chapter
resources to a tutorial I wrote. These resources are available at http://www.standardista.com/mobile,
and contain links to external resources, code examples, and all the
links referenced in this book.
With desktop browsers, most people navigate a stationary Web with a mouse and a keyboard. On phones and tablets, we often navigate the Web with our fingers, rotating, shaking, touching, and tapping the device, but we don’t—and can’t—click anything. Even the skinniest, scrawniest of users still has “fat fingers” compared to the precision possible with a mouse. And, with relatively small screens and often with smaller user attention spans, there are different considerations when it comes to the user interface and the limited space for including content.
Chapter 11 covers responsive web development features. Chapter 12 covers design considerations. We cover mobile and touch screen unique-event handlers in Chapter 13. Mobile performance, debugging, and device limitations are covered in Chapter 14.
As web developers, we’ve been stuck in the past. We’ve been catering to a browser that is over 12 years old. When you don’t have to worry about cross-browser compatibility, and you don’t have to live within the constraints of CSS2, development gets exciting. Mobile devices ship with advanced browsers that implement cutting-edge technology. Use that technology!
Mobile has opened up this exciting new world. WebKit with HTML5 support is on Android tablets, iPhones, OpenMoko, BlackBerry phones, and more. In addition to BlackBerry, Android, and iOS devices, WebKit is the engine for the Bolt, Dolphin, Ozone, and Skyfire browsers. Firefox, Opera, and IE are also found on cell phones, and the advanced Presto-based Opera browser is still found on a multitude of non-“computer” devices. Opera and Chrome are porting to Blink. Soon, everyone will have a fully fledged web browser on their phone, on their TV, in their car, and even in their refrigerators.
Right now, on the desktop, we may feel held back by Internet Explorer’s lack of support for new and upcoming standards. With the proliferation of standards-compliant browsers and the dwindling use of older versions of Internet Explorer, we’ll soon be able to rely on CSS3 everywhere. Moving to mobile, we can think past CSS2 constraints. However, we have new issues to deal with: real estate constraints! One size does not fit all. The mobile browser is, obviously, smaller than the desktop browser.
For some sites, you can have a one-size-fits-all approach, but most HTML files and CSS documents do not fit all browser sizes.
Depending on the complexity of the content and design, you may want to serve up different HTML and different CSS depending on the medium.
Sometimes you may just be able to temporarily hide certain content. At other times, you’ll want to serve a smaller header and smaller images. You may also want to have a multicolumn layout on a wide screen, and a single column layout on the phone. You will want to alter appearances based on device size: for example, a three-column layout is easiest to read on the desktop. Placing those columns vertically on top of the other makes more sense in the mobile arena.
Mobile web design is all about keeping it simple. You can only fit so much in the small area that the phone provides. Scrolling is only for longer articles, not for home or navigational pages.
You may want to provide separate markup for the mobile version of your website. But you don’t have to. And unless you’re creating a real web application rather than a simple website, you really shouldn’t.
Internet access on mobile devices used to be thought of as something only for people on the go. Yes, some mobile browser users are simply quickly looking for access to specific information. They may be checking their online grocery list, looking up the ingredients for a casserole, or trying to find the best Italian restaurant within a five-minute walk.
While perhaps that user is not currently interested in the corporate structure of the food supplier, it doesn’t mean that when they are interested in locating that information that they won’t try to do so from the same mobile device. While we may perform such in-depth research on a desktop computer, more and more users are only accessing the Internet with their mobile devices.
Perhaps your average mobile user will just want to get an address, a phone number, or a status update on the go, and will not want to delete, reorganize, edit, or research stuff on her iPhone. But she might. The mobile device may be her only computer. So while you should make sure the most necessary information is easily accessible, you do want to ensure your users can perform all tasks that can be done on a widescreen monitor in the mobile space if needed.
You also have to think about usability. Touch screen devices use fingers instead of mice as input devices. Fingers are fatter than cursors. For touch screen devices, action targets need to be large and have padding. We discuss suggested user interface changes for touch devices in Chapter 13.
Nonpresentational images should be removed from mobile device markup: images are generally optimized for the desktop not the mobile device; they take up space that should be reserved for content when real estate is scarce, and bandwidth can be very slow and very expensive. Yes, include content images if the images are contextual, but use (or omit) background images for images that are decorative in nature.
In Chapter 1, we’ll get our development environments set up and discuss the examples used throughout this book.
Chapters Chapter 2–6 discuss what is new in HTML5. We discuss best practices in coding semantic markup that is compatible with all modern browsers, both in the desktop and mobile spaces. We cover the new HTML5 semantic elements, Web Forms 2.0, and several of the HTML5 APIs and related APIs, like geolocation. We’ll touch on SVG, canvas, web forms, video, audio, AppCache and database, and web workers.
Chapters 7–11 introduce everything that is up and coming in CSS3, from new color types, to shadows, to border images, to rounded corners, to animation—you will have all the tools you need to create beautiful web applications for both mobile and modern desktop browsers, with responsive web design features highlighted in Chapter 11.
In Chapters 12–14, we focus on the mobile platform, including touch events, user experience design, and mobile performance considerations. Lessons covered will ensure site performance, user experience, and reliability of web pages on all platforms.
Yes, our goal is to develop kickass websites for mobile. The first step to creating a great website for a mobile device is to create a great website! While you should be developing your website in the desktop browser for ease of development, you should design and develop with mobile always in mind. Then, with minimal modifications, your site will look great and perform well on most, if not all, platforms. Our goal is to develop web applications that work on the phone, by creating web applications that work on all modern browsers.
The following typographical conventions are used in this book:
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Used for program listings, as well as within paragraphs to refer to program elements such as variable or function names, databases, data types, environment variables, statements, and keywords.
Constant width bold
Shows commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.
Constant width italic
Shows text that should be replaced with user-supplied values or by values determined by context.
This icon signifies a tip, suggestion, or general note.
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The chapter resources are available at http://www.standardista.com/mobile. There you can find links to external resources, code examples, and all the links referenced in this book.
This book is here to help you get your job done. In general, when example code is offered with this book, you may use it in your programs and documentation. You do not need to contact us for permission unless you’re reproducing a significant portion of the code. For example, writing a program that uses several chunks of code from this book does not require permission. Selling or distributing a CD-ROM of examples from O’Reilly books does require permission. Answering a question by citing this book and quoting example code does not require permission. Incorporating a significant amount of example code from this book into your product’s documentation does require permission.
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Thank you to Bruce Lawson, Adam Lichtenstein, Jennifer Hanen, Tim Kadlec, Jeff Burtoft, Tomomi Imura, and Justin Lowery.
Bruce Lawson coauthored the first book on HTML5, Introducing HTML5 (New Riders). He’s one of the founders of HTML5Doctor.com, and was a member of W3C’s Mobile Web Best Practices Working Group. He evangelizes open web standards for Opera, the oldest browser manufacturer, whose mobile, desktop, TV, and embedded browsers are used by 300 million people across the world (see www.opera.com). Follow Bruce on Twitter at @brucel, or www.brucelawson.co.uk.
Justin Lowery created the look for CubeeDoo. He is a UX architect at his company, Cerebral Interactive, which specializes in the design and development of web and mobile applications. He’s been a graphic/print designer since 2001 and a web developer since 2006. He’s also an informatics nurse (RN), which lends well to his current focus on revolutionizing information technology for health care education. Follow Justin at @cerebralideas, or www.cix.io.
Adam Lichtenstein is a frontend developer and a OOCSS/Sass junkie. He is the creator of FormFace, which focuses on semantic building and styling of HTML5 forms. He is currently the frontend developer and designer at Wufoo and authoring his first book on frontend development. When not coding or writing about coding, his main hobby is thinking about coding. Follow him at @seethroughtrees, or http://seethroughtrees.github.io.
Jenifer Hanen is a mobile designer, developer, and photographer with a passion to make everyone fall as deeply in love with mobile as she is. Ms. Hanen developed her first public website for a friend’s band in 1996 and has had a mobile and web consultancy since 2000, as well as stints as an adjunct web design and art history professor. Follow her at @msjen, or http://blackphoebe.com/msjen.
Tomomi Imura is an open web advocate and frontend engineer with mobile focus who has been active in the mobile space since before it was cool. She has been developing mobile web, platform UI/UX, and frameworks at Yahoo! Mobile and webOS at Palm before joining Nokia, to work with the W3C and evangelize HTML5. Follow her at @girlie_mac, or http://girliemac.com.
 We will be using the term “HTML5” to mean what is also called “HTML: The Living Standard.”
 Apple actually censors applications. No risqué pictures. No adult violence. It appears that cute violence can get approval, so if you want to include violence, target children?
 You have to pay Apple an annual “developer fee” to submit your native iPhone applications to the App Store, whether or not your application is successful or even approved.
 HTML5 has become an umbrella term. HTML5 is just a component of the HTML5 “umbrella.” Bruce Lawson has suggested the term NEWT for this large umbrella, for “New Exciting Web Technologies.” I would have thought that term silly, but I loved the newt mascot.
 Opera Mini does not have good HTML5 support, and never will. It is a different type of browser—a proxy browser—intentionally having limited features in favor of lower bandwidth usage. Opera Mini requests web pages through Opera’s servers, which process and compress them before sending them to the mobile phone, dramatically reducing the amount of data transferred. The preprocessing increases compatibility with web pages not designed for mobile phones, but limits the interactivity and features of the site.