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Modern Graphics Communication, Fifth Edition

Book Description

This is a clear, comprehensive, full-color introduction and reference for students and professionals who are creating engineering drawings and graphics with CAD software or by hand. It provides excellent technical detail and motivating real-world examples, illuminating theory with a colorful, highly-visual format complemented with concise text. Designed for busy, visually-oriented learners, this guide expands on well-tested material, fully updated for the latest ASME standards, materials, industries and production processes. Its up-to-date examples range from mechanical, plastic, and sheet metal drawings to modern techniques for civil engineering, architecture, and rapid prototyping. Throughout, clear, easy, step-by-step descriptions teach essential sketching and visualization techniques, including the use of 3D and 2D CAD. All color visuals are tightly integrated with text to promote rapid mastery. Colorful models and animations on a companion website bring the material to life, and hands-on projects and tear-out worksheets make this guide ideal both for learning and for ongoing reference.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover Page
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. About this Book
    1. The Fifth Edition
    2. Teaching/Learning Features
    3. About the Author
    4. Online Resources
  5. Acknowledgments
  6. Walkthrough
    1. Chapter Opener
    2. “Spotlight” Sections
    3. “Foundations” Section
    4. “Detail” Section
    5. “Step by Step” Activities
    6. “CAD at Work”
    7. “Industry Case”
    8. “Portfolio”
    9. Solid Model Visualization Art
    10. Illustrations
    11. Chapter Review
    12. Chapter Exercises
  7. Brief Contents
  8. Contents
  9. Chapter One. The Worldwide Graphic Language for Design
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding the Role of Technical Drawings
    3. 1.1 Graphics Tools in Action
    4. 1.2 Rapid Prototyping
    5. 1.3 Drafting Standards
    6. 1.4 Creativity Techniques
    7. 1.5 Product Definition
    8. 1.6 Showing the Design Process in a Portfolio
    9. Key Words
    10. Chapter Summary
    11. Review Questions
    12. Chapter Exercises
    13. Reverse Engineering Projects
  10. Chapter Two. Layouts and Lettering
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Projections
    3. 2.1 Alphabet of Lines
    4. 2.2 Freehand Lines
    5. 2.3 Measurement Systems
    6. 2.4 Drawing Scale
    7. 2.5 Specifying the Scale on a Drawing
    8. 2.6 Lettering
    9. 2.7 Lettering Standards
    10. 2.8 Using Guidelines for Hand Lettering
    11. 2.9 Vertical and Inclined Letters and Numerals
    12. 2.10 Fractions
    13. 2.11 Spacing of Letters and Words
    14. 2.12 Lettering for Titles
    15. 2.13 Drawing Pencils
    16. 2.14 Templates
    17. 2.15 CAD Tools
    18. 2.16 Sketching and Drawing Media
    19. 2.17 Standard Sheets
    20. 2.18 Standard Layout Elements
    21. 2.19 Layouts
    22. 2.20 Planning Your Drawing or Sketch
    23. Key Words
    24. Chapter Summary
    25. Worksheets
    26. Review Questions
    27. Chapter Exercises
  11. Chapter Three. Visualization and Sketching
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Solid Objects
    3. Understanding Sketching Techniques
    4. 3.1 Technique of Lines
    5. 3.2 Sketching Straight Lines
    6. 3.3 Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses
    7. 3.4 Maintaining Proportions
    8. 3.5 One-View Drawings
    9. 3.6 Pictorial Sketching
    10. 3.7 Projection Methods
    11. 3.8 Axonometric Projection
    12. 3.9 Isometric Projection
    13. 3.10 Isometric Drawings
    14. 3.11 Making an Isometric Drawing
    15. 3.12 Offset Location Measurements
    16. 3.13 Hidden Lines and Centerlines
    17. 3.14 Angles in Isometric
    18. 3.15 Irregular Objects
    19. 3.16 Curves in Isometric
    20. 3.17 True Ellipses in Isometric
    21. 3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings
    22. 3.19 Drawing Isometric Cylinders
    23. 3.20 Screw Threads in Isometric
    24. 3.21 Arcs in Isometric
    25. 3.22 spheres in Isometric
    26. 3.23 Oblique Sketches
    27. 3.24 Length of Receding Lines
    28. 3.25 Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings
    29. 3.26 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
    30. 3.27 Angles in Oblique Projection
    31. 3.28 Sketching Assemblies
    32. 3.29 Sketching Perspectives
    33. 3.30 Curves and Circles in Perspective
    34. 3.31 Shading
    35. 3.32 Computer Graphics
    36. 3.33 Drawing on Drawing
    37. Key Words
    38. Chapter Summary
    39. Worksheets
    40. Review Questions
    41. Sketching Exercises
  12. Chapter Four. Geometry for Modeling and Design
    1. Overview
    2. Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling
    3. Geometric Entities
    4. 4.1 Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc
    5. 4.2 Drawing Tangents to Two Circles
    6. 4.3 Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and through a Point
    7. 4.4 Bisecting an Angle
    8. 4.5 Drawing a Line Through a Point and Parallel to a Line
    9. 4.6 Drawing a Triangle with Sides Given
    10. 4.7 Drawing a Right Triangle with Hypotenuse and One Side Given
    11. 4.8 Laying Out an Angle
    12. 4.9 Drawing an Equilateral Triangle
    13. 4.10 Polygons
    14. 4.11 Drawing a Regular Pentagon
    15. 4.12 Drawing a Hexagon
    16. 4.13 Ellipses
    17. 4.14 Spline Curves
    18. 4.15 Geometric Relationships
    19. 4.16 Solid Primitives
    20. 4.17 Recognizing Symmetry
    21. 4.18 Extruded Forms
    22. 4.19 Revolved Forms
    23. 4.20 Irregular Surfaces
    24. 4.21 User Coordinate Systems
    25. 4.22 Transformations
    26. Key Words
    27. Chapter Summary
    28. Worksheets
    29. Skills Summary
    30. Review Questions
    31. Chapter Exercises
  13. Chapter Five. Modeling and Design
    1. Overview
    2. Refinement and Modeling
    3. Kinds of Models
    4. 5.1 2D Models
    5. 5.2 3D Models
    6. 5.3 Types of 3D Models
    7. 5.4 Constraint-Based Modeling
    8. 5.5 Constraints Define the Geometry
    9. 5.6 Planning Parts for Design Flexibility
    10. 5.7 Sketch Constraints
    11. 5.8 The Base Feature
    12. 5.9 Editing the Model
    13. 5.10 Constraint-Based Modeling Modes
    14. 5.11 Choosing the Right Modeling Method
    15. Key Words
    16. Chapter Summary
    17. Review Questions
    18. Chapter Exercises
  14. Chapter Six. Orthographic Projection
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Projections
    3. 6.1 Hidden Line Technique
    4. 6.2 Precedence of Lines
    5. 6.3 Centerlines
    6. 6.4 Laying Out a Drawing
    7. 6.5 Developing Views From 3D Models
    8. 6.6 Visualization
    9. 6.7 Views of Surfaces
    10. 6.8 Normal Surfaces
    11. 6.9 Inclined Surfaces
    12. 6.10 Oblique Surfaces
    13. 6.11 Edges
    14. 6.12 Normal Edges
    15. 6.13 Inclined Edges
    16. 6.14 Oblique Edges
    17. 6.15 Parallel Edges
    18. 6.16 Angles
    19. 6.17 Vertices
    20. 6.18 Interpreting Points
    21. 6.19 Interpreting Lines
    22. 6.20 Similar Shapes of Surfaces
    23. 6.21 Interpreting Views
    24. 6.22 Models
    25. 6.23 Projecting a Third View
    26. 6.24 Becoming a 3D Visualizer
    27. Key Words
    28. Chapter Summary
    29. Worksheets
    30. Review Questions
    31. Chapter Exercises
  15. Chapter Seven. 2D Drawing Representation
    1. Overview
    2. Practices for 2D Documentation Drawings
    3. 7.1 Visualizing and Drawing Complex Cylindrical Shapes
    4. 7.2 Cylinders When Sliced
    5. 7.3 Cylinders and Ellipses
    6. 7.4 Intersections and Tangencies
    7. 7.5 Fillets and Rounds
    8. 7.6 Runouts
    9. 7.7 Conventional Edges
    10. 7.8 Necessary Views
    11. 7.9 Partial Views
    12. 7.10 Alignment of Views
    13. 7.11 Removed Views
    14. 7.12 Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts
    15. 7.13 Revolution Conventions
    16. Key Words
    17. Chapter Summary
    18. Review Questions
    19. Chapter Exercises
  16. Chapter Eight. Section Views
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Sections
    3. 8.1 Placement of Section Views
    4. 8.2 Labeling Cutting Planes
    5. 8.3 Line Precedence
    6. 8.4 Rules for Lines in Section Views
    7. 8.5 Cutting-Plane Line Style
    8. 8.6 Section-Lining Technique
    9. 8.7 Half Sections
    10. 8.8 Broken Out Sections
    11. 8.9 Revolved Sections
    12. 8.10 Removed Sections
    13. 8.11 Offset Sections
    14. 8.12 Ribs in Section
    15. 8.13 Aligned Sections
    16. 8.14 Partial Views
    17. 8.15 Intersections in Sections
    18. 8.16 Conventional Breaks and Sections
    19. 8.17 Assembly Sections
    20. Key Words
    21. Chapter Summary
    22. Worksheets
    23. Review Questions
    24. Chapter Exercises
  17. Chapter Nine. Auxiliary Views
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Auxiliary Views
    3. 9.1 Using Triangles to Sketch Auxiliary Views
    4. 9.2 Using Grid Paper to Sketch Auxiliary Views
    5. 9.3 Using CAD to Create Auxiliary Views
    6. 9.4 Circles and Ellipses in Auxiliary Views
    7. 9.5 Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views
    8. 9.6 Partial Auxiliary Views
    9. 9.7 Half Auxiliary Views
    10. 9.8 Reverse Construction
    11. 9.9 Auxiliary Sections
    12. 9.10 Viewing-Plane Lines and Arrows
    13. 9.11 Uses of Auxiliary Views
    14. 9.12 True Length of a Line
    15. 9.13 Point View of a Line
    16. 9.14 Edge View of a Plane
    17. 9.15 True Size of an Oblique Surface
    18. 9.16 Dihedral Angles
    19. Understanding Developments and Intersections
    20. 9.17 Developments
    21. 9.18 Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials
    22. 9.19 More Examples of Developments and Intersections
    23. 9.20 Transition Pieces
    24. 9.21 Triangulation
    25. 9.22 Developing a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis
    26. 9.23 Developing a Plane and a Sphere
    27. 9.24 Revolution
    28. 9.25 Primary and Successive Revolutions
    29. 9.26 True Length of a Line: Revolution Method
    30. Key Words
    31. Worksheets
    32. Chapter Summary
    33. Review Questions
    34. Chapter Exercises
  18. Chapter Ten. Modeling for Manufacture and Assembly
    1. Overview
    2. Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service
    3. 10.1 Assembly Models
    4. 10.2 Assemblies and Design
    5. 10.3 Assemblies and Simulation
    6. 10.4 Parts for Assemblies
    7. 10.5 Using Your Model to Check Fits
    8. 10.6 Manufacturing Processes
    9. 10.7 Dos and Don’ts of Practical Design
    10. 10.8 Manufacturing Materials
    11. 10.9 Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling
    12. 10.10 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish
    13. 10.11 Net-Shape Manufacturing
    14. 10.12 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
    15. 10.13 Shared Manufacturing
    16. 10.14 Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing
    17. 10.15 Modeling for Testing and Refinement
    18. 10.16 Determining Mass Properties
    19. 10.17 Exporting Data From the Database
    20. 10.18 Downstream Applications
    21. 10.19 Prototyping Your Design
    22. Key Words
    23. Chapter Summary
    24. Skills Summary
    25. Review Questions
    26. Chapter Exercises
  19. Chapter Eleven. Dimensioning
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Dimensioning
    3. 11.1 Lines Used in Dimensioning
    4. 11.2 Using Dimension and Extension Lines
    5. 11.3 Arrowheads
    6. 11.4 Leaders
    7. 11.5 Drawing Scale and Dimensioning
    8. 11.6 Direction of Dimension Values and Notes
    9. 11.7 Dimension Units
    10. 11.8 Millimeter Values
    11. 11.9 Decimal-Inch Values
    12. 11.10 Rules for Dimension Values
    13. 11.11 Rules for Rounding Decimal Dimension Values
    14. 11.12 Dual Dimensioning
    15. 11.13 Combination Units
    16. 11.14 Dimensioning Symbols
    17. 11.15 Placing and Showing Dimensions Legibly
    18. 11.16 Superfluous Dimensions
    19. 11.17 Dimensioning Angles
    20. 11.18 Dimensioning Arcs
    21. 11.19 Fillets and Rounds
    22. 11.20 Size Dimensioning: Prisms
    23. 11.21 Size Dimensioning: Cylinders
    24. 11.22 Size Dimensioning: Holes
    25. 11.23 Applying Standard Dimensioning Symbols
    26. 11.24 Dimensioning Counterbores and Spotfaces with Fillets
    27. 11.25 Dimensioning Triangular Prisms, Pyramids, and Cones
    28. 11.26 Dimensioning Curves
    29. 11.27 Dimensioning Curved Surfaces
    30. 11.28 Dimensioning Rounded-End Shapes
    31. 11.29 Dimensioning Threads
    32. 11.30 Dimensioning Tapers
    33. 11.31 Dimensioning Chamfers
    34. 11.32 Shaft Centers
    35. 11.33 Dimensioning Keyways
    36. 11.34 Dimensioning Knurls
    37. 11.35 Finish Marks
    38. 11.36 Surface Roughness
    39. 11.37 Location Dimensions
    40. 11.38 Mating Dimensions
    41. 11.39 Coordinate Dimensioning
    42. 11.40 Tabular Dimensions
    43. 11.41 Dimensioning for Numerically-Controlled Machining
    44. 11.42 Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions
    45. 11.43 Sheet Metal Bends
    46. 11.44 Notes
    47. 11.45 Standards
    48. 11.46 Dos and Don’ts of Dimensioning
    49. Key Words
    50. Worksheets
    51. Chapter Summary
    52. Review Questions
    53. Chapter Exercises
  20. Chapter Twelve. Tolerancing
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Tolerance
    3. 12.1 Specifying Tolerances
    4. 12.2 General Tolerance Notes
    5. 12.3 Limit Tolerances
    6. 12.4 Plus-or-Minus Tolerances
    7. 12.5 Tolerance Stacking
    8. 12.6 Using American National Standard Limits and Fit Tables
    9. 12.7 Tolerances and Machining Processes
    10. 12.8 Metric System of Tolerances and Fits
    11. 12.9 Preferred Sizes
    12. 12.10 Preferred Fits
    13. 12.11 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    14. 12.12 Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form
    15. 12.13 Datum Features
    16. 12.14 Positional Tolerances
    17. 12.15 Maximum Material Condition
    18. 12.16 Tolerances of Angles
    19. 12.17 Form Tolerances for Single Features
    20. 12.18 Orientations for Related Features
    21. 12.19 Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    22. 12.20 Tolerances and Digital Product Definition
    23. 12.21 Computer Graphics
    24. Key Words
    25. Chapter Summary
    26. Worksheets
    27. Review Questions
    28. Chapter Exercises
  21. Chapter Thirteen. Threads, Fasteners, and Springs
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Threads and Fasteners
    3. 13.1 Thread Notes
    4. 13.2 External Thread Symbols
    5. 13.3 Internal Thread Symbols
    6. 13.4 Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads
    7. 13.5 Threads in Assembly
    8. 13.6 Modeling Thread
    9. 13.7 American National Standard Pipe Threads
    10. 13.8 Use of Phantom Lines
    11. 13.9 Tapped Holes
    12. 13.10 Bolts, Studs, and Screws
    13. 13.11 Standard Bolts and Nuts
    14. 13.12 Drawing Standard Bolts
    15. 13.13 Specifications for Bolts and Nuts
    16. 13.14 Locknuts and Locking Devices
    17. 13.15 Standard Cap Screws
    18. 13.16 Standard Machine Screws
    19. 13.17 Standard Set Screws
    20. 13.18 American National Standard Wood Screws
    21. 13.19 Miscellaneous Fasteners
    22. 13.20 Keys
    23. 13.21 Machine Pins
    24. 13.22 Rivets
    25. 13.23 Springs
    26. 13.24 Drawing Helical Springs
    27. 13.25 Modeling Springs
    28. Key Words
    29. Worksheets
    30. Chapter Summary
    31. Review Questions
    32. Chapter Exercises
  22. Chapter Fourteen. Working Drawings
    1. Overview
    2. 14.1 Subassemblies
    3. 14.2 Identification
    4. 14.3 Parts Lists
    5. 14.4 Assembly Sections
    6. 14.5 Working Drawing Assembly
    7. 14.6 Installation Assemblies
    8. 14.7 Check Assemblies
    9. 14.8 Working Drawing Formats
    10. 14.9 Drawing Numbers
    11. 14.10 Zoning
    12. 14.11 Checking Drawings
    13. 14.12 Drawing Revisions
    14. 14.13 Simplifying Drawings
    15. 14.14 Patent Drawings
    16. Key Words
    17. Chapter Summary
    18. Review Questions
    19. Chapter Exercises
  23. Chapter Fifteen. Axonometric Projection
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Axonometric Projection
    3. 15.1 Dimetric Projection
    4. 15.2 Approximate Dimetric DrawingS
    5. 15.3 Trimetric Projection
    6. 15.4 Trimetric Scales
    7. 15.5 Trimetric Ellipses
    8. 15.6 Axonometric Projection Using Intersections
    9. 15.7 Computer Graphics
    10. 15.8 Oblique Projections
    11. 15.9 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
    12. 15.10 Offset Measurements
    13. 15.11 Oblique Dimensioning
    14. 15.12 Computer Graphics
    15. Key Words
    16. Chapter Summary
    17. Review Questions
    18. Chapter Exercises
  24. Chapter Sixteen. Perspective Drawings
    1. Overview
    2. Understanding Perspectives
    3. 16.1 Perspective From a Multiview Projection
    4. 16.2 Nonrotated Side View Method for Perspective
    5. 16.3 Drawing an Angular Perspective
    6. 16.4 Position of the Station Point
    7. 16.5 Location of the Picture Plane
    8. 16.6 Bird’s-Eye View or Worm’s-Eye View
    9. 16.7 The Three Types of Perspectives
    10. 16.8 One-Point Perspective
    11. 16.9 One-Point Perspective of a Cylindrical Shape
    12. 16.10 Two-Point Perspective
    13. 16.11 Three-Point Perspective
    14. 16.12 Measurements in Perspective
    15. 16.13 Direct Measurements Along Inclined Lines
    16. 16.14 Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines
    17. 16.15 Inclined Lines in Perspective, Joining Endpoint Method
    18. 16.16 Curves and Circles in Perspective
    19. 16.17 The Perspective Plan Method
    20. 16.18 Perspective Diagram
    21. 16.19 Shading
    22. 16.20 Computer Graphics
    23. Key Words
    24. Chapter Summary
    25. Review Questions
    26. Chapter Exercises
  25. Glossary
  26. Appendices
    1. 1 Useful Formulas for Geometric Entities
    2. 2 Running and Sliding Fits—American National Standard
    3. 3 Clearance Locational Fits—American National Standard
    4. 4 Transition Locational Fits—American National Standard
    5. 5 Interference Locational Fits—American National Standard
    6. 6 Force and Shrink Fits—American National Standard
    7. 7 International Tolerance Grades
    8. 8 Preferred Metric Hole Basis Clearance Fits—American National Standard
    9. 9 Preferred Metric Hole Basis Transition and Interference Fits—American National Standard
    10. 10 Preferred Metric Shaft Basis Clearance Fits— American National Standard
    11. 11 Preferred Metric Shaft Basis Transition and Interference Fits—American National Standard
    12. 12 Screw Threads, American National, Unified, and Metric
    13. 13 Twist Drill Sizes—American National Standard and Metric
    14. 14 Acme Threads, General Purpose
    15. 15 Bolts, Nuts, and Cap Screws—Square and Hexagon— American National Standard and Metric
    16. 16 Cap Screws, Slotted and Socket Head—American National Standard and Metric
    17. 17 Machine Screws—American National Standard and Metric
    18. 18 Keys—Square, Flat, Plain Taper, and Gib Head
    19. 19 Screw Threads, Square and Acme
    20. 20 Woodruff Keys—American National Standard
    21. 21 Woodruff Key Sizes for Different Shaft Diameters
    22. 22 Pratt and Whitney Round-End Keys
    23. 23 Washers, Plain—American National Standard
    24. 24 Washers, Lock—American National Standard
    25. 25 Wire Gage Standards
    26. 26 Taper Pins—American National Standard
    27. 27 Cotter Pins—American National Standard
    28. 28 Form and Proportion of Datum Symbols
    29. 29 Form and Proportion of Geometric Characteristic Symbols
    30. 30 Form and Proportion of Geometric Dimensioning Symbols
    31. 31 Form and Proportion of Modifying Symbols
    32. 32 Form and Proportion of Dimensioning Symbols and Letters
    33. 33 Comparison of Symbols
    34. 34 Types of Scales
    35. 35 Additional Geometric constructions
  27. Index
  28. Worksheets
    1. Worksheet 1 Practice sketching freehand lines
    2. Worksheet 2 Measurements and Scale
    3. Worksheet 3 Vertical lettering practice
    4. Worksheet 4 1/8 inch lettering practice
    5. Worksheet 5 Using Negative Space
    6. Worksheet 6 Sketching circles and ellipses
    7. Worksheet 7 Practicing line and curve technique
    8. Worksheet 8 Blocking in the irregular object
    9. Worksheet 9 Sketching to Scale
    10. Worksheet 10 Sketching an isometric pictorial
    11. Worksheet 11 Sketching curved shapes in isometric
    12. Worksheet 12 Creating an oblique sketch of an object
    13. Worksheet 13 Using Boolean operators
    14. Worksheet 14 The Glass Box
    15. Worksheet 15 Transferring Depth Dimensions
    16. Worksheet 16 Blocking a multiview drawing
    17. Worksheet 17 Practice with hidden lines
    18. Worksheet 18 Projecting inclined surfaces
    19. Worksheet 19 Practice with centerlines
    20. Worksheet 20 Sketching Full Sections
    21. Worksheet 21 Sketching Full Sections
    22. Worksheet 22 Sketching a full section
    23. Worksheet 23 Sketching a half section
    24. Worksheet 24 Creating an aligned section
    25. Worksheet 25 The auxiliary view glass box
    26. Worksheet 26 Plotting curves
    27. Worksheet 27 Developing a prism
    28. Worksheet 28 Developing a cylinder
    29. Worksheet 29 Dimensioning
    30. Worksheet 30 Dimensioning
    31. Worksheet 31 Dimensioning
    32. Worksheet 32 Dimensioning technique
    33. Worksheet 33 Determining allowances and clearances
    34. Worksheet 34 Sketching dimensions with tolerances
    35. Worksheet 35 Sketching thread symbols
  29. Inside Front Cover
  30. Inside Back Cover