Appendix 1

The Soviet (Stalinist) economic system

Appendix 1 relies heavily on Jeffries (2002c: 1–5; 51–62; 90–2; 97–8; 110; 118; 155–7; 170–3).

The Soviet Union was the world's largest country in terms of land area, occupying a sixth of the earth's land surface excluding Antarctica. It was well endowed in terms of natural resources, although there were climatic, transport and soil difficulties. Stalin (who died in 1953) and his successors succeeded in making the Soviet Union one of the world's two ‘superpowers’, rivalling the United States in terms of conventional and nuclear capacity. In 1990 the population was 290.1 million, the third largest after China and India. When the Bolshevik Revolution succeeded in 1917 the country was backward ...

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