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Ophthalmic Imaging

Book Description

 

Ophthalmic Imaging serves as a reference for the practicing ophthalmic imager. Ophthalmic imaging combines photography and diagnostic imaging to provide insight into not only the health of the eye, but also the health of the human body as a whole. Ophthalmic photographers are specialists in imaging through and in the human eye, one of the only parts of the body where the circulation and nervous system is visible non-invasively. With technical perspective as context, this book will provide instructional techniques as well as the background needed for problem solving in this exciting field. The book covers all aspects of contemporary ophthalmic imaging and provides image support to ophthalmologists and sub-specialties including retinal specialists, corneal specialists, neuro-ophthalmologists, and ocular oncologists. This text serves as a reference for the practicing ophthalmic imager, or to imagers just getting started in the field. 

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. Foreword
  6. Acknowledgements
  7. PART 1 INTRODUCTION
    1. What Is Ophthalmic Photography and Imaging?
    2. How to Use This Book
  8. PART 2 FOUNDATIONS
    1. 1 Anatomy of the Eye
      1. The Adnexa
      2. Tears
      3. The Conjunctiva
      4. The Cornea
      5. The Iris
      6. Lens
      7. Ciliary Body and Aqueous Humor
      8. The Globe
      9. Vitreous
      10. Retina
      11. Putting It All Together
    2. 2 Photographic Technology
      1. Light and Color
      2. Photographic Exposure
      3. Illumination
      4. Image Formation
      5. Quality Measurements of Sensors
      6. Image Files
  9. PART 3 POSTERIOR SEGMENT IMAGING
    1. 3 Posterior Segment Imaging
      1. Preparation for Imaging: Dilation
      2. The Fundus Camera
      3. Performing Fundus Photography
      4. Stereo Photography
    2. 4 Fluorescein Angiography
      1. Sodium Fluorescein
      2. Fluorescence and Filtration
      3. Fluorescein Injections
      4. Side Effects of Fluorescein
      5. Fluorescein’s Path Through the Body
      6. Preparing for a Fluorescein Angiogram
      7. Performing a Fluorescein Angiogram
      8. Timing and Phases of a Fluorescein
      9. Normal Fluorescein Angiogram
      10. Abnormal Fluorescence During an Angiogram
      11. Abnormal Fluorescence Outside of an Angiogram
      12. How to Descriptively Interpret a Fluorescein Angiogram
      13. Future Trends
    3. 5 Indocyanine Green Angiography
      1. Indocyanine Green
      2. Fluorescence and Camera Specifications
      3. ICG Injection
      4. ICG Side Effects
      5. Preparing for an ICG Angiogram
      6. Performing an ICG Angiogram
      7. Normal ICG Angiography
      8. Phases of an ICG
      9. Abnormal Fluorescence in an ICG
      10. Conclusions
    4. 6 Optical Coherence Tomography
      1. How OCT Works
      2. OCT Technology: Time Domain Devices
      3. OCT Technology: Spectral Domain Devices
      4. OCT Imaging Protocols
      5. Performing OCT
      6. Image Quality in OCT
      7. Normal OCT Morphology
      8. Abnormal Morphology
      9. OCT Reflectivity
      10. How to Descriptively Interpret an OCT
    5. 7 Fundus Autofluorescence Procedure
      1. Fluorescence and Camera/Device Specifications
      2. Performing Fundus Autofluorescence
      3. Descriptive Interpretation of Fundus Autofluorescence
    6. 8 Scanning Laser and Confocal Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscope
      1. How an SLO and a cSLO Work
      2. Wide-Field Imaging
      3. Optical Coherence Tomography
  10. PART 4 ANTERIOR SEGMENT IMAGING
    1. 9 Anterior Segment Imaging
      1. Macro Eye Photography
    2. 10 Anterior Segment Imaging: Slit Lamp Biomicrography
      1. Anatomy of a Slit Lamp
      2. Illumination Approach
      3. Slit Lamp Imaging Goals
      4. Slit Lamp Lighting Approaches
      5. Image Troubleshooting
    3. 11 Anterior Segment OCT
      1. Performing AS-OCT
      2. Descriptive Interpretation of Anterior Segment Optical Coherence Tomography
      3. Normal AS-OCT Morphology
      4. Abnormal AS-OCT Morphology
  11. PART 5 IMAGING DISEASE
    1. 12 Signs and Symptoms of Retinal Disease
      1. Exudates and Microaneurysms
      2. Drusen
      3. Cotton Wool Spots
      4. Retinal Hemorrhage
      5. Macular Edema
      6. Retinal Neovascularization
      7. Choroidal Neovascularization
      8. Serous Detachment
      9. RPE Detachment
      10. Choroidal Ruptures
      11. Angioid Streaks
      12. Hyperpigmentation
    2. 13 Retinal Occlusions
      1. Occlusions
      2. Artery Occlusions
      3. Vein Occlusions
      4. Other Vessel Occlusions
    3. 14 Retinal Vascular Diseases
      1. Diabetic Retinopathy
      2. Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Retinopathy
      3. Categories of Diabetic Retinopathy
      4. Imaging Diabetic Retinopathy
      5. Vascular Malformation in the Retina
    4. 15 Macular Disease and Retinal Dystrophies
      1. Age-Related Macular Degeneration
      2. Cystoid Macular Edema
      3. Central Serous Retinopathy
      4. Retinitis Pigmentosa
      5. Rare Diseases and Devising an Imaging Strategy
      6. Ocular Histoplasmosis Syndrome
      7. Lattice/Myopic Degeneration
    5. 16 Vitreous Disorders
      1. Posterior Vitreous Detachment
      2. Retinal Adhesions
      3. Macular Hole
      4. Epiretinal Membrane/Macular Pucker
      5. Vitreous Hemorrhage
      6. Asteroid Hyalosis
      7. Retinal Detachment and Lattice Degeneration
    6. 17 Optic Nerve Head Diseases and Disorders
      1. Glaucoma
      2. Papilledema
      3. Optic Nerve Head Drusen
      4. Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
      5. Coloboma
    7. 18 Cancer and Tumors in the Retina
      1. Choroidal Melanoma
      2. Retinoblastoma
  12. PART 6 IMAGING APPLICATIONS
    1. 19 Image Management
      1. Image Management Systems
      2. Image Consistency and Accuracy
    2. 20 Telemedicine and Teleophthalmology
      1. Background
      2. Methods
      3. Applications of Teleophthalmology
      4. Standards and Training
      5. Conclusion
  13. Bibliography
  14. Index