In this chapter, we learned to use various tools to assess different layers of the OSI protocol stack. We covered tools that attack layer 2 protocol implementations, namely ARP and other MAC-based authentication schemes.

We also covered simple ARP poisoning attacks using ArpSpoof and saw how to forge MAC addresses. Building on this, we applied these techniques to perform full MITM attacks that allow us to intercept traffic and spoof DNS servers.

The chapter also included sections dedicated to techniques that target SMTP and SNMP services on a local network. These sections detailed the usage of a tool called snmpwalk as well as the Metasploit modules snmp-enum and snmp-login, which were used to brute-force SNMP authentication. The information ...

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