Chapter 7. DOM

In this chapter, we return to standard APIs with the Document Object Model (DOM). In Chapter 5, we talked about the benefits of using standard APIs: increased compatibility with other software components and (if implemented correctly) a guaranteed complete solution. The same concept applies in this chapter: what SAX does for event streams, DOM does for tree processing.

DOM and Perl

DOM is a recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Designed to be a language-neutral interface to an in-memory representation of an XML document, versions of DOM are available in Java, ECMAscript,[1] Perl, and other languages. Perl alone has several implementations of DOM, including XML::DOM and XML::LibXML.

While SAX defines an interface of handler methods, the DOM specification calls for a number of classes, each with an interface of methods that affect a particular type of XML markup. Thus, every object instance manages a portion of the document tree, providing accessor methods to add, remove, or modify nodes and data. These objects are typically created by a factory object, making it a little easier for programmers who only have to initialize the factory object themselves.

In DOM, every piece of XML (the element, text, comment, etc.) is a node represented by a Node object. The Node class is extended by more specific classes that represent the types of XML markup, including Element, Attr (attribute), ProcessingInstruction, Comment, EntityReference, Text, CDATASection,

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