It is in the form of

*ẋ = Ax + BU + Fd*

U – control vector

d – disturbance vector

*x* – state vector

Equation (5.18) is converted into standard state space model form.

i.e. *ẋ = Ax + Bu* is written as follows:

If *x* is made up of the sum of transient and steady state value, and *U* is also made up of transient and steady state value, then

. then substitute in the equation *ẋ = Ax + BU + Fd*

Therefore, *ẋ* = *Ax*^{1} + *Ax*_{ss} + *BU*^{1} + *BU*_{ss} + *Fd* (5.19)

If a sudden disturbance occurs and the system reaches the ...

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