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Appendix 1B: Retarded Potentials and Review of Potentials for the Static Cases

Appendix 1B: Retarded Potentials and Review of Potentials for the Static Cases

1B.1Electrostatics

The basic equation is

(1B.1)×E=0.

It is known that the curl of the gradient of any scalar is zero, that is,

(1B.2)×gradient ofanyscalar0.

Therefore, E can be expressed as the gradient of a scalar ψ (electrostatic potential).

(1B.3)E=ψ,

where ψ satisfies Poisson’s equation

(1B.4) ...

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