The HTTP Request/Response Phase

To better illustrate how the web server and servlet container work together to service clients, this section discusses the protocol for an HTTP request and response, from the time a client request is received until the server returns a response. Struts makes heavy use of the request and response objects, and a complete understanding of the round-trip process will help clarify some topics discussed later in the book.


Although the browser is not the only type of client that can be used with Struts, it certainly is the most common. More and more developers are starting to use Struts for wireless applications and even some interaction with web services, but the web browser remains the predominant client.

HTTP is based on a request/response model, so there are two types of HTTP messages: the request and the response. The browser opens a connection to a server and makes a request. The server processes the client’s request and returns a response. Figure 2-3 illustrates this process.

The HTTP request/response model

Figure 2-3. The HTTP request/response model

Both types of messages consist of a start line, zero or more header fields, and an empty line that indicates the end of the message headers. Both message types also may contain an optional message body.

The format and makeup of the request and response messages are very similar, but there are a few differences. We’ll discuss each type ...

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