4. Analysis of Variance and Covariance in Excel and R

You can think of an analysis of variance (ANOVA) that employs just one factor—sex, for example, or political affiliation or type of medication used—as one step beyond t-tests in complexity and one step below ANOVAs with two or more factors. A t-test is limited to the comparison of two group means—men and women, say, or Republicans and Democrats. But ANOVAs are designed to assess the differences between three or more group means, such as Republicans, Democrats, ...

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