Chapter 4


1. Omkar Goswami, ‘Sahibs, Babus, and Banias: Changes in Industrial Control in Eastern India, 1918–1950’, pp. 306–07.

2. Harkishan Singh, ‘European Pharmacies in Colonial India’, p. 59.

3. Sir Prafulla Chandra Ray (1861–1944): Indian chemist, educator and entrepreneur.

4. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (1869–1948): Indian nationalist leader.

5. Charka—Spinning wheel used in India for spinning cotton.

6. P.C. Ray, ‘Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceutical Works—Its Origin’, in Life and Experiences of a Bengali Chemist, p. 92.

7. Ray, ‘Industry Precedes Technological Institute—The Great Illusions—Technology before Industries—The Cart before the Horse’, Life and Experiences, pp. 316–7.

8. T.K. Gajjar (1863–?): Chemist and entrepreneur.


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