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Science for the Curious Photographer, 2nd Edition

Book Description

While there are many books that teach the "how-to" of photography, Science for the Curious Photographer is a book for those who also want to understand how photography works. Beginning with an introduction to the history and science of photography, Charles S. Johnson, Jr. addresses questions about the principles of photography, such as why a camera needs a lens, how lenses work, and why modern lenses are so complicated.

Addressing the complex aspects of digital photography, the book discusses color management, resolution, "noise" in images, and the limits of human perception. The creation and appreciation of art in photography is discussed from the standpoint of modern cognitive science.

A crucial read for those seeking the scientific context to photographic practice, this second edition has been comprehensively updated, including discussion of DSLRs, mirror-less cameras, and a new chapter on the limits of human vision and perception.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface to the First Edition
  8. Preface to the Second Edition
  9. Permissions
  10. Chapter 1 What Is Photography?
  11. Chapter 2 What Is Light?
  12. Chapter 3 The Camera—An Introduction
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 The Camera Body
    3. 3.3 The Lens
    4. 3.4 Film and Sensors
    5. 3.5 Digital Camera Design
  13. Chapter 4 Images: What Is Perspective?
  14. Chapter 5 Why Does a Camera Need a Lens?
  15. Chapter 6 Elementary Optics: How Do Lenses Work?
  16. Chapter 7 The Simple Thin Lens and What it Does
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Optical Surfaces
    3. 7.3 Compound Lenses
    4. 7.4 Conclusion
  17. Chapter 8 How to Make Lenses that Are Good Enough for Photography
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Aberrations
    3. 8.3 The Petzval Sum
    4. 8.4 Optical Materials
    5. 8.5 Anti-Reflective Coatings
    6. 8.6 Conclusion
  18. Chapter 9 Coming to Terms with Real Camera Lenses
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 The Thin Lens
    3. 9.3 The Compound lens
    4. 9.4 Gaussian Optics
    5. 9.5 Entrance Pupil, Stop, and Illumination of the Image
    6. 9.6 Vignetting
    7. 9.7 Metalenses and the New Optics of the 21st Century
    8. 9.8 Conclusion
  19. Chapter 10 Wide-Angle Lenses, Fisheye Lenses, and Panoramas
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Conventional or Rectilinear Lenses
    3. 10.3 Types of Fisheye Lenses
    4. 10.4 How Fisheye Lenses Accomplish Their Magic
    5. 10.5 Examples and Illustrations
    6. 10.6 Panoramas
    7. 10.7 Conclusions
  20. Chapter 11 What Is an Equivalent Image?
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Determinants of Image Appearance
    3. 11.3 Comments and Conclusions
  21. Chapter 12 How to Get Very High Magnification
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Supplemental Lenses
    3. 12.3 Extension
    4. 12.4 Teleconverters (Tele-Extenders) for Cameras with Interchangeable Lenses
    5. 12.5 Afocal Teleconverters for Fixed Lens Cameras
    6. 12.6 Combinations of Lenses and Extenders for Real World Macrophotography
    7. 12.7 Special Problems Resulting from High Magnification
    8. 12.8 Lighting for Close-Up Nature Photography with High Shutter Speeds
    9. 12.9 The Optimum F-Number for Macrophotography
    10. 12.10 Expanding the Depth-of-Field
    11. 12.11 Conclusions
  22. Chapter 13 Do We Need Filters Anymore?
    1. 13.1 Introduction
    2. 13.2 Absorption Filters
    3. 13.3 Polarization Filters
    4. 13.4 Polarization in Nature
    5. 13.5 UV and IR Photography
  23. Chapter 14 The Limits of Human Vision
    1. 14.1 Introduction
    2. 14.2 Structure of the Eye
    3. 14.3 Operation of the Visual Receptors
    4. 14.4 Visual Acuity
    5. 14.5 Sensitivity
    6. 14.6 Conclusions
  24. Chapter 15 How Can Color Be Managed?
    1. 15.1 Introduction
    2. 15.2 Color Theories
    3. 15.3 Colorimetry
    4. 15.4 Color Spaces for Digital Photography
    5. 15.5 Color Management in the Tristimulus World
    6. 15.6 Goethe-Hering Theory
    7. 15.7 Monochrome and Monotone Images
    8. 15.8 Color Constancy and the Land Theory
    9. 15.9 Color Opponent Cells in the Retina and Brain
  25. Chapter 16 Image Capture and Processing
    1. 16.1 Introduction
    2. 16.2 Capturing Photons with Image Sensors
    3. 16.3 CCD and CMOS Image Sensors
    4. 16.4 Encoding of Color
    5. 16.5 How Film/Sensor Speed (ISO) Is Defined
    6. 16.6 How the Dynamic Range Is Determined
    7. 16.7 Exposure Settings for High Image Quality
    8. 16.8 Saving and Storing the Image
    9. 16.9 Image Processing and Manipulation
    10. 16.10 Artifacts Resulting from Inadequate Periodic Sampling
    11. 16.11 Gamma Correction
    12. 16.12 Capturing the LightField
    13. 16.13 Does the Sensor Really Determine the Resolution of My Digital Camera?
  26. Chapter 17 What Is Perceived Image Quality?
    1. 17.1 Introduction
    2. 17.2 Image Blurring and Softness
    3. 17.3 Focus
    4. 17.4 Camera Motion
    5. 17.5 Signal-to-Noise Ratios
    6. 17.6 Diffraction
    7. 17.7 Lens Performance
    8. 17.8 Sensor Resolution
    9. 17.9 Perceived Image Quality
    10. 17.10 Sharpening by Means of Image Processing
    11. 17.11 Contrast Sensitivity Function
    12. 17.12 Subjective Quality Factor
    13. 17.13 A Caveat
  27. Chapter 18 The Creation and Appreciation of Art in Photography
    1. 18.1 What Is a Good Photograph?
    2. 18.2 Art and Consciousness
    3. 18.3 How Images Are Perceived
    4. 18.4 Why Do Images Attract or Repel?
    5. 18.5 How Knowledge of the Visual System Can Enhance the Artist’s Bag of Tricks
    6. 18.6 Reflections on Art in Photography
  28. Chapter 19 What We See and How We Photograph It
  29. Appendices
    1. A Historical Note on Enlargers
    2. B What Is Behind the Rules of Optics?
    3. C Derivation of the Lens Maker’s Equation
    4. D Gaussian Optics and the Principal Planes
    5. E A Macro Lens with Attachments
    6. F Observing and Managing Color: Dealing with Color Vision Anomalies
    7. G Capturing Photons with Photographic Film
    8. H Microelectronics and the Path to Digital Sensors
    9. I Irradiance and Illuminance Units
    10. J All about Depth-of-Field and Hyperfocal Distance
  30. Index