8.17. Using Basic Diffie-Hellman Key Agreement


You want a client and a server to agree on a shared secret such as an encryption key, and you need or want to use the Diffie-Hellman key exchange protocol.


Your cryptographic library should have an implementation of Diffie-Hellman. If it does not, be aware that Diffie-Hellman is easy to implement on top of any arbitrary precision math library. You will need to choose parameters in advance, as we describe in the following Section 8.17.3.

Once you have a shared Diffie-Hellman secret, use a key derivation function to derive an actual secret for use in other cryptographic operations. (See Recipe 4.11.)


Diffie-Hellman is a very simple way for two entities to agree on a key without an eavesdropper’s being able to determine the key. However, room remains for a man-in-the-middle attack. Instead of determining the shared key, the attacker puts himself in the middle, performing key agreement with the client as if he were the server, and performing key agreement with the server as if he were the client. That is, when you’re doing basic Diffie-Hellman, you don’t know who you’re exchanging keys with; you just know that no one else has calculated the agreed-upon key by snooping the network. (See Recipe 7.1 for more information about such attacks.)


To solve the man-in-the-middle problem, you generally need to introduce some sort of public key authentication mechanism. With Diffie-Hellman, it is common to use DSA (see ...

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