14  Adaptive Beamforming and Localization

Adaptive beamforming [1] is used to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the look-direction (LD) by carefully steering nulls in the beam pattern toward the direction(s) of interference sources. From a physical point of view, one should be clear in understanding that at any given frequency the beamwidth and SNR for spatially incoherent noise (random noise waves from all directions) is dictated by physics, not signal-processing algorithm. The larger the array, the greater the SNR enhancement will be in the LD, provided all array elements are spaced less than half a wavelength. The more array elements one has, the wider the temporal frequency bandwidth will be where wavenumbers can be uniquely ...

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