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Smart Sensor Systems: Emerging Technologies and Applications by Gerard Meijer, Michiel Pertijs, Kofi Makinwa

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Chapter 6Introduction to CMOS-Based DNA Microarrays

Roland Thewes

Technische Universität Berlin (Berlin Institute of Technology), Berlin, Germany

6.1 Introduction

Electronic and in particular CMOS-based microarrays used for detection of biomolecules such as DNA or proteins have gained huge interest in recent years since they promise to provide advantages compared to state-of-the-art commercially available tools using optical readout principles. Integration of the transducer together with signal-processing circuitry in closest proximity on a solid-state chip supports signal integrity and thus translates into robustness, leads to provision of signals in the same domain (i.e. electrically) as they are further post-processed, and may open the way to decrease overall system costs and to increase flexibility concerning application scenarios. In this chapter an overview of CMOS-based microarrays is given from an engineer's point of view, covering the general operation principle of microarrays, functionalization techniques, and different detection principles. Special emphasis is put on CMOS integration and the related processing issues, as well as on CMOS circuit-design requirements. In the latter context, a number of examples published in the literature are considered.

This chapter is organized as follows: In Section 6.2, the basic operation principle as well as applications of DNA microarrays are introduced. After that, in Section 6.3, functionalization techniques – that is, techniques ...

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