A microphone is a transducer that converts acoustical sound energy into electrical energy, based on the principle described in Fact File 3.1. It performs the opposite function to a loudspeaker, which converts electrical energy into acoustical energy. The three most common principles of operation are the moving coil or ‘dynamic’, the ribbon, and the capacitor or condenser. The principles of these are described in Fact Files 3.2–3.4.
The moving-coil or dynamic microphone
The moving-coil microphone is widely used in the sound reinforcement industry, its robustness making it particularly suitable for hand-held vocal use. Wire-mesh bulbous wind shields are usually fitted to such models, and contain foam material which attenuates ...