**Objectives**

The objective of this appendix is to review the basic concepts usually covered in an undergraduate course in process control. Concepts reviewed include:

Block diagram representation of control systems.

Laplace transform and transfer functions.

Analysis of block diagrams.

P, PI, and PID controllers.

Stability of feedback control systems.

The block diagram notation is extensively used to describe and analyze control systems. The simplest form is shown in Figure A.1. The diagram shows the cause (a change in the input variable) and effect (a change in the output variable) relationship between the input and output variables. We define input and output variables as deviations from an initial nominal ...

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