The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

Book description

Offers a wide-ranging overview of the issues and research approaches in the diverse field of applied linguistics 

Applied linguistics is an interdisciplinary field that identifies, examines, and seeks solutions to real-life language-related issues. Such issues often occur in situations of language contact and technological innovation, where language problems can range from explaining misunderstandings in face-to-face oral conversation to designing automated speech recognition systems for business. The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics includes entries on the fundamentals of the discipline, introducing readers to the concepts, research, and methods used by applied linguists working in the field. This succinct, reader-friendly volume offers a collection of entries on a range of language problems and the analytic approaches used to address them.

This abridged reference work has been compiled from the most-accessed entries from The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics (www.encyclopediaofappliedlinguistics.com)the more extensive volume which is available in print and digital format in 1000 libraries spanning 50 countries worldwide. Alphabetically-organized and updated entries help readers gain an understanding of the essentials of the field with entries on topics such as multilingualism, language policy and planning, language assessment and testing, translation and interpreting, and many others. 

Accessible for readers who are new to applied linguistics, The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics

  • Includes entries written by experts in a broad range of areas within applied linguistics
  • Explains the theory and research approaches used in the field for analysis of language, language use, and contexts of language use
  • Demonstrates the connections among theory, research, and practice in the study of language issues
  • Provides a perfect starting point for pursuing essential topics in applied linguistics

Designed to offer readers an introduction to the range of topics and approaches within the field, The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics is ideal for new students of applied linguistics and for researchers in the field. 

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Thematic List of Entries
    1. Analysis of Context of Language Use
    2. Analysis of Language Use
    3. Language Assessment and Testing
    4. Language Learning and Teaching
    5. Language Policy and Planning
    6. Language for Specific Purposes
    7. Linguistic Analysis for Applied Problems
    8. Multilingualism
    9. Research Methods
    10. Second Language Development
    11. Technology and Language
    12. Translation and Interpreting
    13. World Englishes
  3. Alphabetical List of Entries
  4. General Editor
  5. Contributors
  6. Introduction to The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics
    1. Defining Applied Linguistics
    2. Problems in Applied Linguistics
    3. Research in Applied Linguistics
    4. Reading The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics
    5. References
    6. Suggested Readings
    7. Note
  7. Acknowledgments
  8. A
    1. Adverbs
      1. Form and Function
      2. Classification
      3. Semantic Roles
      4. Adverbs in Discourse
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    2. African Union
      1. Introduction
      2. Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and Language Policy and Ideologies
      3. The African Union and Africa's Past Language Policies
      4. The African Union and Attitudes Toward African Languages
      5. The African Union and Prospects for the Indigenous African Languages
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    3. Agency in Second Language Acquisition
      1. Significance of Agency in SLA: A Theoretical Overview
      2. Theoretical Perspectives on Agency in SLA
      3. Research Into Agency in L2 Learning and Teaching
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Reading
      7. Note
    4. Analysis of Dialogue
      1. Dialogues
      2. Organization
      3. Intersubjectivity
      4. Social Context
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    5. Analysis of Gender in Interaction
      1. What Is Gender in Human Interaction?
      2. The Polysemy of Gendered Language
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
    6. Anthropological Linguistics
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    7. Aptitude in Second Language Acquisition
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    8. Assessment in the Classroom
      1. Approaches of Classroom Assessment
      2. Assessment for Summative Purposes or Assessment of Learning
      3. Assessment for Formative Purposes or Assessment for Learning
      4. Assessment as Learning
      5. The Role of Standards in Classroom Assessment
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
      9. Note
    9. Assessment of Cultural Knowledge
      1. Introduction
      2. Conceptualizing Cultural Knowledge
      3. The Nature of Instruments Assessing Cultural Knowledge
      4. Selected Cultural Knowledge Assessment Instruments
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Online Resources
      8. Note
    10. Assessment of Integrated Skills
      1. Test Tasks
      2. Computer Madness
      3. Research in the Assessment of Integrated Skills
      4. Benefits of Integrated Assessment
      5. Challenges of Integrated Assessment
      6. Development
      7. Reliability and Rating
      8. Validity
      9. Conclusions
      10. References
      11. Suggested Readings
    11. Assessment of the Linguistic Resources of Communication
      1. Representing the Linguistic Resources of Communication
      2. Conceptualizing L2 Proficiency as Knowledge of Grammatical Forms
      3. Conceptualizing L2 Proficiency as a Set of Resources for Communicating Contextualized Meanings
      4. Measuring the Linguistic Resources of Communication
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Note
    12. Assessment of Listening
      1. Listening Processes
      2. Factors Affecting Listening
      3. Tasks for Assessing Listening
      4. Limitations of Listening Assessment Tasks
      5. Computers in Assessing Listening
      6. Current and Future Directions in Assessing Listening
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    13. Assessment of Pragmatics
      1. The Construct
      2. Tests Under the Speech Act Construct
      3. Measurement of Interactional Abilities
      4. Challenges in Testing L2 Pragmatics
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
    14. Assessment of Reading
      1. Brief History of Reading Research
      2. Linguistic Knowledge and Reading Ability
      3. Reading Ability in a Second Language
      4. Reading Assessment in a Second Language
      5. Unique Challenges in L2 Reading Assessment
      6. Future Directions in Second Language Reading Assessment
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    15. Assessment of Speaking
      1. Speaking Assessment Methods
      2. Rating Scales and Scale Descriptors
      3. Raters
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    16. Assessment of Vocabulary
      1. Introduction
      2. Selection of Target Items
      3. Design of Assessments
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    17. Assessment of Writing
      1. Purposes of Writing Tests
      2. The Nature of Second Language Writing
      3. Types of Writing Assessments
      4. Characteristics of Writing Tests: Tasks and Scoring
      5. Challenges and Opportunities for the Future
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    18. Attention, Noticing, and Awareness in Second Language Acquisition
      1. Introduction
      2. Theoretical Approaches to the Roles of Attention and Awareness in SLA
      3. Attention/Noticing and Learning: Empirical Evidence in SLA
      4. Awareness and Learning in SLA
      5. Empirical Evidence for the Role of Awareness in SLA
      6. Learning Without Awareness?
      7. Where Do We Go From Here?
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
    19. Attitudes and Motivation in Bilingual Education
      1. Introduction
      2. Attitudes
      3. Motivation
      4. Different Motivational Models
      5. Minority Languages
      6. Foreign Languages: Global English
      7. Conclusions
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
    20. Audiovisual Translation
      1. Multimedia Translation
      2. AVT Modalities
      3. Dubbing
      4. Subtitling
      5. Fansubbing
      6. Accessibility
      7. References
    21. Authenticity in the Language Teaching Curriculum
      1. Authentic Materials in a Historical Context
      2. Pedagogical Challenges
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
      5. Note
    22. Automatic Speech Recognition
      1. Definition
      2. Historical Overview
      3. Challenges and Applications of ASR
      4. ASR in Applied Linguistics
      5. Automatic Rating of Pronunciation
      6. Other ASR Applications in Applied Linguistics
      7. Future Directions
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
  9. B
    1. Bilingualism and Cognition
      1. Bilingualism and Language
      2. Bilingualism and Nonverbal Cognition
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
    2. Bilingual and Monolingual Language Modes
      1. Language Mode
      2. Evidence for Language Mode
      3. Language Mode in Different Groups of Bilinguals
      4. Language Mode in Research
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
      8. Note
  10. C
    1. Case Study
      1. Defining Case‐Study Research
      2. Case Studies in Applied Linguistics
      3. Issues in Case‐Study Research
      4. Case Studies in Mixed Methods Research
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    2. Chaos/Complexity Theory for Second Language Acquisition/Development
      1. Introduction
      2. Traditional Views of SLA
      3. Shifting the Metaphor
      4. Language Users/Learners
      5. Usage‐Based Emergentism
      6. Individual Differences
      7. Implications for Research Methods
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
    3. Classroom Research
      1. What Is Classroom Research?
      2. What Are the Origins of L2 Classroom Research?
      3. Are There Different Approaches to Classroom Research?
      4. What Questions and Topics Are Examined in CR?
      5. Future Directions in CR
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    4. Cognitive Approaches to Translation
      1. Methodological Approaches
      2. Translation as Information Processing and Symbol Manipulation
      3. Translation as an Experiential, Cultural Act
      4. Translation as Situated, Sociocognitive Interaction
      5. References
    5. Collaborative Language Learning
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    6. Computer‐Assisted Language Learning Effectiveness Research
      1. Introduction
      2. Research Findings on CALL Effectiveness
      3. Approaches to Evaluating CALL Effectiveness
      4. CALL Evaluation Argument
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
      8. Note
    7. Computer‐Assisted Pronunciation Teaching
      1. Technology for Teaching Segmentals (Vowels and Consonants)
      2. Technology for Teaching Suprasegmentals (Prosody, Intonation, Rhythm)
      3. Outlook for the Future
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    8. Computer‐Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS)
      1. References
      2. Suggested Reading
      3. Online Resources
    9. Computer‐Mediated Communication and Second Language Development
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    10. Construction Grammar
      1. Introduction
      2. Construction Grammar: The Central Ideas
      3. Applications
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Online Resource
    11. Content‐Based Second/Foreign‐Language Instruction
      1. Introduction
      2. Three Main CBLI Models
      3. Implementation Issues
      4. Research Agenda
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    12. Conversation Analysis and Affiliation and Alignment
      1. Introduction
      2. Distinguishing Affiliation and Alignment
      3. Creating an Environment for Alignment and Affiliation
      4. Disaligning and Disaffiliating
      5. Affiliating Without Aligning
      6. Aligning Without Affiliating
      7. Discussion
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
    13. Conversation Analysis and Child Language Acquisition
      1. Competencies and Understandings
      2. Childhood: Interactions in Pre‐ and Early‐Years Primary School Settings
      3. References
      4. Suggested Reading
    14. Conversation Analysis and Classroom Interaction
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    15. Conversation Analysis of Computer‐Mediated Interactions
      1. Future Trends
      2. References
      3. Suggested Readings
    16. Conversation Analysis and Interactional Linguistics
      1. Introduction
      2. Basic Assumptions
      3. Historical Development
      4. Research Principles and Methods
      5. Objects of Research
      6. Findings
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    17. Conversation Analysis and Laughter
      1. Introduction
      2. The Interactional Environments of Laughter
      3. Laughter and Social Context
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    18. Conversation Analysis Methodology in Second Language Studies
      1. Introduction
      2. Compatibility of CA and L2 Studies
      3. Types of Studies
      4. CA Methodological and Procedural Positions in L2 Studies
      5. In Conclusion: Applying CA to L2 Studies
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    19. Conversation Analysis and Second Language Acquisition: CA‐SLA
      1. CA, SLA, and CA‐SLA
      2. Reconceptualizing Learning and Cognition
      3. Methodological Underpinnings
      4. Analyzing L2 Interactions and Learning Environments
      5. Analyzing L2 Learning
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    20. Conversation Analysis: Transcriptions and Data
      1. Transcriptions and Data
      2. Recordings and Data
      3. Transcription
      4. Specific Issues
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    21. Corpus Analysis of Business English
      1. Corpora of Business English
      2. Linguistic Analyses of Business English Corpora
      3. Multidimensional Analysis of Business English Corpora
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    22. Corpus Analysis in Forensic Linguistics
      1. Comparative Authorship Analysis
      2. Authorship Profiling
      3. Trademark Disputes
      4. Determination of Meaning
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    23. Corpus Analysis of Key Words
      1. Introduction
      2. Method: How Are Key Words Calculated?
      3. Problems, Limitations, and Extensions of the Technique
      4. Example Applications
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    24. Corpus Analysis of Political Language
      1. Types of Corpus‐Assisted Studies Into the Language of Politics
      2. Potential Sources of Data
      3. Types of Research Objectives
      4. The Added Value of Using Corpora
      5. Modern Diachronic Corpus‐Assisted Discourse Studies (MD‐CADS)
      6. Research as Activism or Research for Knowledge's Own Sake?
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
      10. Note
    25. Corpus Linguistics in Language Teaching
      1. What Relevance Does Corpus Linguistics Have for Language Teaching?
      2. Corpus Linguistics in the Classroom: Options for Language Teachers
      3. Conclusions
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    26. Corpus Linguistics: Quantitative Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. Distinctive Collexeme Analysis
      3. Applications
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    27. Council of Europe Language Policy and Planning
      1. Introduction
      2. Policy Documents and Tools in Support of Plurilingual People Living in Multilingual Societies
      3. The European Centre for Modern Languages
      4. References
      5. Note
    28. Critical Analysis of Political Discourse
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    29. Critical Pedagogy in Language Teaching
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    30. Critical Period
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    31. Cross‐Cultural Pragmatics
      1. Context Shaping Meaning
      2. Language Shaping Context
      3. Common Ground
      4. Fields of Application
      5. Conclusions
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    32. Crosslinguistic Influence in Second Language Acquisition
      1. Terminology
      2. The Verification of CLI
      3. Main Findings
      4. Theoretical and Empirical Advances
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    33. Cultural Approaches to Translation
      1. Introduction
      2. Translation From Cultures
      3. Translating for Cultures
      4. Translating Between Cultures
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  11. D
    1. Difficulty and Complexity of Language Features and Second Language Instruction
      1. Introduction
      2. The Issues
      3. The Evidence
      4. The Problems and Challenges
      5. Summary and Future Directions
      6. References
      7. Suggested Reading
    2. Discourse and Identity
      1. Social Identities in Discourse
      2. Personal Identities in Narrative
      3. Digital, Networked, and Posthuman Identities
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
  12. E
    1. Early Bilingualism
      1. Major Linguistic Developments in BFLA and ESLA
      2. Applied Aspects of Early Bilingualism
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
    2. English for Academic Purposes
      1. Introduction
      2. Generic or Specific Attributes in EAP?
      3. Approaches to EAP
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    3. English in Asian and European Higher Education
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    4. English for Business
      1. Introduction
      2. Researching Written and Spoken Business English
      3. The Effects of Using English for Business
      4. English for Business in the Future
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    5. English for Occupational Purposes
      1. Introduction
      2. Surveys in English for Occupational Purposes
      3. Analyzing Language and Interactions at Work
      4. English for Occupational Purposes in Different Workplace Settings
      5. The Social Dimension of English for Occupational Purposes
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
    6. English‐Only Movement
      1. Historical Background
      2. The Rise of the Contemporary English‐Only Movement
      3. Propositions 227 and 203
      4. Proposition 58 and the Future
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    7. Epistemology and Ontology
      1. Introduction
      2. Ontology Within Metaphysics
      3. Epistemology
      4. Theories of Knowledge in Mainstream and Second Language Research
      5. Constructivist Epistemology and Second Language Research Knowledge
      6. Knowledge of Second or Foreign Languages and Language Teachers' Knowledge
      7. References
    8. Ethnography of Communication as a Research Perspective
      1. Hymes's Theoretical Model
      2. “Doing Ethnography”
      3. Conclusion
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    9. Explicit Knowledge and Grammar Explanation in Second Language Instruction
      1. What Is Explicit Knowledge?
      2. Isolated or Integrated Grammar Instruction?
      3. Grammar Explanation
      4. Other Ways of Explaining Grammar
      5. What to Explain
      6. Taking the Learner Into Account
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
  13. F
    1. First Language Vocabulary Acquisition
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    2. Foreign Accent
      1. Why Is a Foreign Accent So Difficult to Overcome?
      2. Two Main Linguistic Sources of Foreign Accent: L1 Transfer and Universals
      3. Why Are Some Phenomena More Difficult to Learn Than Others?
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    3. Form‐Focused Instruction
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    4. Formulaic Language and Collocation
      1. The Functions of Formulaic Language
      2. Acquisition of Formulaic Language
      3. Non‐Native Use of Formulaic Language
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    5. Formulaic Sequences
      1. Definition
      2. Functions
      3. Evidence
      4. Theoretical Issues
      5. Formulaic Sequences in SLA
      6. The Future
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    6. Frame Analysis
      1. Bateson's Conception of Frame
      2. “Frame,” “Keying,” and “Footing”
      3. Various Perspectives of Frame Analysis: Interactive Frame and Cognitive/Knowledge Frame
      4. Studies of Frame Analysis
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    7. Functional Approaches to Translation
      1. Historical Background
      2. Basic Concepts and Ideas of Skopos Theory
      3. Applications to Translator Training
      4. Conclusions
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  14. G
    1. Genre‐Based Language Teaching
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    2. Genre and Discourse Analysis in Language for Specific Purposes
      1. Discourse and Genre Analysis
      2. Genre Structures and Features
      3. Genre and Community
      4. Genre Constellations
      5. Genre Pedagogies
      6. Critiques
      7. Conclusions
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
    3. Grammar in Academic Writing
      1. Noun Phrase Characteristics
      2. Thematization
      3. Personal Pronouns
      4. Tense
      5. Cohesion
      6. Hedging
      7. Intertextuality, Citation, and Knowledge Claims
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
    4. Grammar and Electronic Communication
      1. Introduction
      2. E‐Grammar in English
      3. Emoji Grammar
      4. E‐Grammar and Language Change
      5. E‐Grammar and Literacy
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
      8. Note
  15. H
    1. Heritage Languages and Language Policy
      1. Defining Heritage Languages
      2. Defining HL Learners
      3. US Language Policy for Heritage Languages
      4. Looking Ahead
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    2. Historical Pragmatics
      1. Introduction
      2. Approaches and Data
      3. Application
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    3. History of Language‐Teaching Methods
      1. Early History
      2. Grammar Translation Method
      3. Direct Method
      4. Audio‐Lingual Method
      5. Cognitive Approaches to Language Teaching
      6. Communicative Language Teaching
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
      9. Suggested Readings
    4. History of Translation
      1. The Object of Inquiry
      2. Research Questions and Source Collection, Evaluation, and Interpretation
      3. Writing Translation History
      4. Sample Approaches to Translation History
      5. Toward Integrative Translation History
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
  16. I
    1. Identities and Language Teaching in Classrooms
      1. Theories of the Social
      2. Theories of the Sociomaterial
      3. Explorations in Sociomaterialism
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    2. Identity and Second Language Acquisition
      1. Theoretical Framework
      2. Identity on the SLA Agenda
      3. Key Directions in Identity Research
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
    3. Immersion Education
      1. Program Models and Outcomes
      2. Pedagogical Issues
      3. Conclusions
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    4. Innovation in Language Teaching and Learning
      1. Introduction
      2. Reasons for Educational Innovation
      3. Innovation Implementation
      4. Barriers to Innovation Implementation
      5. The Importance of Secondary Innovations
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    5. Instructed Second Language Acquisition
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    6. Intelligibility in World Englishes
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    7. Intercultural Competence
      1. Competence
      2. Models of Intercultural Competence
      3. Contexts and Applications
      4. Assessment or Measuring of Intercultural Competence
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    8. Intercultural Interaction
      1. Introduction
      2. Culture and Achieving Understanding
      3. Culture and the Management of Relations
      4. Culture, Identity, and Personal Growth
      5. Competence in Intercultural Interaction
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    9. Interlanguage
      1. Origins of the Concept of Interlanguage
      2. Defining Interlanguage
      3. The Relevant Data for the Study of Interlanguage
      4. The Revised Interlanguage Hypothesis
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    10. International Phonetic Alphabet
      1. Introduction
      2. History
      3. The International Phonetic Alphabet, English Spelling, and Dictionaries
      4. The International Phonetic Alphabet Itself
      5. The International Phonetic Alphabet on the Computer
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
      9. Note
    11. Interviews in Qualitative Research
      1. Forms of Interviewing in Qualitative Research
      2. Designing Qualitative Studies That Use Interviews
      3. Asking Questions
      4. Issues in Conducting Interviews
      5. Theorizing Interviews
      6. Transcribing and Analyzing Interview Data
      7. Quality in Interviewing
      8. The Future of Interview Research
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
      11. Online Resources
  17. K
    1. Knowledge Base of Language Teachers
      1. Teachers' Knowledge About Language
      2. Teachers' Knowledge of Second Language Acquisition
      3. Teachers' Identities, Moral Values, and Critical Consciousness
      4. Language Teachers' Sense Making in Action
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  18. L
    1. Language, Culture, and Context
      1. An Integrative View of Language
      2. Language and Culture
      3. Cultural Dimensions of Language
      4. The Language–Culture Nexus in Context
      5. References
      6. Suggested Reading
      7. Note
    2. Language and Globalization
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    3. Language and Identity
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    4. Language Ideology in the Discourse of Popular Culture
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    5. Language Ideology and Public Discourse
      1. Language Ideology and Public Discourse
      2. Language Ideologies: Differences and Commonalities
      3. Public Versus Private?
      4. Moving Beyond Language: Current Developments in Language Ideology Research
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    6. Language Planning: Qin Shihuangdi's Contribution
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    7. Language Policy and Planning: Kemal Atatürk’s Contribution
      1. References
      2. Suggested Reading
      3. Note
    8. Language Program Evaluation
      1. Introduction to Program Evaluation
      2. The Emergence of Language Program Evaluation
      3. Contemporary Impetus for Language Program Evaluation
      4. Characteristics of Contemporary Program Evaluation
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    9. Language Teaching and Learning: Quantitative Methods
      1. An Example Study
      2. Additional Considerations
      3. References
      4. Suggested Reading
      5. Appendix: Data Set
    10. Languaging: Collaborative Dialogue as a Source of Second Language Learning
      1. Definition
      2. Collaborative Dialogue (CD) as a Source of Learning
      3. Contexts Implicated in the Quality and Quantity of CD
      4. Mediational Means Used
      5. Inseparability of Cognition and Emotion
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
      8. Suggested Reading
    11. Learner Beliefs in Second Language Learning
      1. The Beginnings
      2. The Classics
      3. Continuation of Research Along Two Lines
      4. Most Recent Research: Further Twists and Turns
      5. Conclusion: Challenges and Directions for Future Research
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    12. Learner Corpora
      1. Learner Corpus Design Criteria
      2. Learner Corpus Typology
      3. Learner Corpus Methodology
      4. Learner Corpus Analysis
      5. Learner Corpus‐Based Applications
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    13. Lexical Borrowing
      1. Notable Examples
      2. Factors That Encourage Lexical Borrowing
      3. The Adaptations of Borrowing
      4. Reactions to Lexical Borrowing
      5. The Implications of Lexical Borrowing for Foreign/Second Language Study
      6. Conclusion
      7. References
      8. Suggested Reading
    14. Lexical Priming
      1. References
      2. Note
    15. Lexicogrammar
      1. Introduction
      2. Systemic Functional Linguistics
      3. Corpus Linguistics
      4. References
      5. Suggested Reading
    16. Linguaculture
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    17. Lingua Franca and Language of Wider Communication
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    18. Linguistic Imperialism
      1. Expansion Through Linguistic Imperialism
      2. Ongoing Tensions Between Linguistic Imperialism and Resistance
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
    19. Linguistic Landscape Studies
      1. Introduction
      2. Emerging Themes
      3. Methodology
      4. Outlook and Further Expansion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  19. M
    1. Materials Development
      1. Introduction
      2. What Materials Do Language Learners Need?
      3. Should Materials Be Forms or Meaning Focused?
      4. Should Materials Be Contrived or Authentic?
      5. Should Learners Be Asked to Practice or to Use the Language?
      6. Should Materials Be Based on Theories of Language Acquisition?
      7. Should Materials Be Global or Local?
      8. What Role Can Technology Play in Facilitating Language Acquisition?
      9. Conclusion
      10. References
      11. Suggested Readings
    2. Mixed Methods
      1. Stances on Mixing Paradigms
      2. Purposes of Mixing Methods
      3. Mixed Methods Research Designs
      4. Mixed Methods Data Analysis
      5. Quality Issues in Mixing Methods
      6. Using Mixed Methods in Applied Linguistics Research
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    3. Mobile-Assisted Language Learning
      1. MALL in Relation to CALL
      2. Typical Applications
      3. Reading and Listening
      4. Speaking and Writing
      5. Location‐Specific Language Learning
      6. Support for Informal Learning
      7. Control Over Learning
      8. Mobile Learners
      9. Accessibility and Usability
      10. MALL Within Mobile Learning
      11. Summary
      12. References
      13. Suggested Readings
    4. Motivation in Second Language Acquisition
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    5. Move Analysis
      1. Move Analysis as an Analytical Approach
      2. Move Analysis as a Pedagogical Approach
      3. Move Analysis Crossing Boundaries
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
      6. Note
    6. Multicompetence
      1. Premises of Multicompetence
      2. Multicompetence and SLA Methodology
      3. Effects of the L2 on the L2 User
      4. Bilingual Cognition
      5. Multicompetence and Language Teaching
      6. Conclusions
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
    7. Multilingualism and the Internet
      1. Introduction
      2. Defining the Internet
      3. Different Ways of Using the Internet as a Source of Multilingual Data
      4. Paradigms of Research on Multilingualism on the Internet
      5. Multilingual Language Settings on the Internet
      6. Multilingual Internet Discourse as Heteroglossia
      7. Multilingualism on the Internet and Language Learning
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
    8. Multilingualism and Metalinguistic Awareness
      1. Introduction: Multilingualism and General Cognitive Advantages
      2. Types of Metalinguistic Awareness
      3. Conditions Affecting the Development or Deployment of Metalinguistic Awareness
      4. Metalinguistic Awareness: Learning to Read, Learning Other Languages
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    9. Multimodal Discourse Analysis
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    10. Multimodal Interaction Analysis
      1. Background: Multimodal Interaction Analysis
      2. Unit of Analysis
      3. Modal Density Foreground–Background Continuum of Attention/Awareness
      4. Using Multimodal Interaction Analysis as a Method
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    11. Multimodality and Systemic Functional Analysis
      1. Introduction
      2. What Is SF Theory?
      3. SF‐MDA
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    12. Multimodal Teaching and Learning
      1. Multimodality
      2. Teaching
      3. Learning
      4. Teaching and Learning with L2 Students
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
  20. N
    1. Natural Language Processing and Language Learning
      1. NLP and the Analysis of Learner Language
      2. NLP and the Analysis of Native Language for Learners
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
    2. Needs Analysis
      1. A Rationale for Needs Analysis
      2. Units of Analysis in NA
      3. Stage 1 of a Task‐Based NA: Identifying Target Tasks
      4. Stage 2 of a Task‐Based NA: Analysis of Target Discourse
      5. From NA to Syllabus
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    3. Needs Analysis and Syllabus Design for Language for Specific Purposes
      1. Introduction
      2. The Role and Importance of Needs Analysis
      3. Trends in Scope and Methods
      4. From Needs Analysis to Specification of Syllabus Content
      5. The Role of Theory
      6. Issues in Needs Analysis
      7. Conclusion
      8. References
    4. New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension
      1. Literacy as Deixis
      2. How Should We Conceptualize Literacy as a Deictic Construct?
      3. A Dual‐Level Theory of New Literacies
      4. The New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension
      5. What Do We Know About the New Literacies of Online Research and Comprehension?
      6. What Do We Need to Know About the New Literacies of Online Reading Comprehension?
      7. The Internet Is a Literacy Issue, Not a Technology Issue
      8. Literacy Is the Internet—the Internet Is Literacy
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
      11. Note
    5. Non‐Native‐Speaker English Teachers
      1. Background
      2. Birth of the Non‐Native Speaker Movement
      3. Reflecting on Achievements
      4. References
      5. Online Resources
  21. O
    1. Online Psycholinguistic Methods in Second Language Acquisition Research
      1. Introduction
      2. Word Monitoring
      3. Cross‐Modal Priming
      4. Self‐Paced Reading/Listening
      5. Self‐Paced Listening With Picture Verification
      6. Comparison Between the Tasks: Advantages and Disadvantages
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
      9. Online Resources
      10. Note
    2. Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
  22. P
    1. Paired and Group Oral Assessment
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Note
    2. Pattern Grammar
      1. Introduction
      2. Origins
      3. The COBUILD Publications
      4. Applications of Pattern Grammar
      5. Pattern Grammar and Language Theory
      6. References
    3. Phonetics and Phonology: Historical Overview
      1. Terminology
      2. Pre‐19th‐Century Phonetics
      3. Phonetics and Phonology in the 19th Century
      4. Phonetics and Phonology in the 20th Century
      5. Instrumental Phonetics
      6. The International Phonetic Association and Alphabet
      7. SIL International
      8. Phonology
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
      11. Note
    4. Politeness
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    5. Positivism and Postpositivism
      1. A Discipline of Design
      2. Historically Variable Modes of Applied Linguistics
      3. The Coherence of the Field
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    6. Poststructuralism
      1. Two Critical Incidents
      2. Poststructuralist Theories of Language, Identity, and Investment
      3. Poststructuralist Theory and Classroom Practice
      4. Points of Contention and Sites of Innovation
      5. References
    7. Pragmatic Markers
      1. Introduction: On the Nature of Pragmatic Markers
      2. The Structure of Pragmatic Markers
      3. Do Pragmatic Markers Have a Meaning?
      4. Pragmatic Markers, General Extenders, and Second Language Acquisition
      5. References
    8. Pragmatics of Asynchronous Computer‐Mediated Communication
      1. Medium‐Specific Features of ACMD
      2. The Variation in Pragmatic Features in ACMC Contexts
      3. Pragmatic Features of ACMC in L2 Learning Contexts
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    9. Pragmatics of Lingua Franca Interaction
      1. What Is a Lingua Franca?
      2. Pragmatics and Discourse‐Related Studies of ELF: Some Research Findings
      3. Conclusion
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    10. Pragmatics Research Methods
      1. Observational Data Collection Procedures
      2. Elicited Data Collection Procedures
      3. Experimental Collection Procedures
      4. Data Analysis
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    11. Pragmatic Transfer
      1. Acknowledgment
      2. References
      3. Suggested Readings
    12. Pronunciation Assessment
      1. Introduction
      2. Purposes of Assessing Pronunciation
      3. Methods of Pronunciation Assessment
      4. Challenges in Defining the Construct
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    13. Pronunciation Teaching Methods and Techniques
      1. Understanding the Basic Features of Pronunciation in English
      2. Setting Realistic Goals for Instruction
      3. Planning Instruction
      4. Techniques, Tools, and Technology
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  23. Q
    1. Qualitative Corpus Analysis
      1. Definition and Philosophy
      2. Evolution of Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches to Corpus Analysis
      3. Methodological Foundations
      4. Corpus Design
      5. Corpus Markup and Annotation
      6. Data Retrieval
      7. Data Interpretation
      8. Practical Applications
      9. Conclusions
      10. References
      11. Suggested Readings
    2. Qualitative Research on Information and Communication Technology
      1. Current Areas of Inquiry in ICT Research
      2. Considerations of Qualitative Methods in ICT Settings
      3. New Demands in Qualitative Research in ICT
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    3. Qualitative Sociolinguistics Research
      1. Formulating Qualitative Sociolinguistic Research
      2. Traditions in Qualitative Sociolinguistics Research
      3. Observing Language Use in Context
      4. Issues and Tools in Data Collection
      5. Recent Trends in Qualitative Sociolinguistic Research
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    4. Quantitative Methods
      1. Introduction
      2. Theoretical Assumptions
      3. Formulating the Research Question
      4. Following a Systematic Approach
      5. Factorial Designs
      6. Answering the Research Question
      7. References
      8. Suggested Readings
  24. R
    1. Rating Oral Language
      1. Rating Scales
      2. Rater Training
      3. Rating Processes
      4. Rater Bias Patterns
      5. Future Trends
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    2. Rating Scales and Rubrics in Language Assessment
      1. Definition and Purpose
      2. Types and Uses
      3. Approaches to Rating Scale Development
      4. Issues and Challenges
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    3. Research Methods and Sociocultural Approaches in Second Language Acquisition
      1. Zone of Proximal Development
      2. Dynamic Assessment
      3. Inner Speech
      4. Private Speech
      5. The Regulatory Function of Speech
      6. Gesture
      7. Social Situation of Development
      8. Historical/Theoretical
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
      11. Note
    4. Rhetorical Discourse Analysis
      1. Introduction
      2. The Tradition of Rhetoric
      3. Discourse Analysis
      4. Rhetorical Discourse Analysis
      5. Rhetorical Discourse Analysis in Rhetorical Criticism
      6. Rhetorical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric/Composition
      7. Rhetorical Discourse Analysis in the Study of Language Structure and Use
      8. Conclusion
      9. References
      10. Suggested Readings
    5. Role of Linguistic Human Rights in Language Policy and Planning
      1. Introduction: Linguistic Human Rights as Part of Language Policy
      2. Supplying or Denying Linguistic Human Rights: Good or Bad Language Policy Circles
      3. Which Demands Are Justified? Is Speaking a Minority Language a Handicap to Get Rid Of?
      4. When Can an LHR Approach “Deliver”?
      5. References
      6. Suggested Reading
      7. Online Resource
    6. Roles for Corrective Feedback in Second Language Instruction
      1. Types of Corrective Feedback
      2. Functions of Corrective Feedback
      3. Effects of Corrective Feedback
      4. Future Directions
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    7. Russification in the Soviet and Post‐Soviet Era
      1. References
      2. Suggested Reading
  25. S
    1. Study Abroad
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
      3. Online Resources
    2. Systemic Functional Linguistics
      1. Conceptualizing Text/Context Dynamics: Halliday's Three Metafunctions of Language
      2. The Ideational Metafunction and Field Resources
      3. The Interpersonal Metafunction and Tenor Resources
      4. The Textual Metafunction and Mode Resources
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
  26. T
    1. Task‐Based Language Assessment
      1. Approaches to TBLA
      2. Current Applications of TBLA
      3. Issues in TBLA
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Online Resources
      8. Note
    2. Task‐Based Learning: Cognitive Underpinnings
      1. Cognitive Processes in Task‐Based Learning
      2. Design Characteristics Affecting the Cognitive Processing Demands of Tasks
      3. Effects of Cumulative Increases in the Cognitive Demands of Tasks
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
    3. Teacher Education for Multilingual Education
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    4. Teaching Culture and Intercultural Competence
      1. What Is Culture?
      2. Teaching Culture: Modernist Perspectives
      3. Intercultural Competence
      4. Teaching Culture: Postmodernist Perspectives
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
      8. Note
    5. Teaching Reading: Foundations and Practices
      1. Research on Reading with Implications for Instruction
      2. Emphases for Reading Instruction
      3. Concluding Comments
      4. References
      5. Suggested Reading
    6. Teaching Speaking
      1. Speaking Under Time Pressure
      2. What to Teach?
      3. How to Teach?
      4. Teaching Speaking and Theories of SLA
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    7. Teaching Vocabulary
      1. Which Words Should Be Learned?
      2. What Are the Vocabulary Learning Goals?
      3. How Will Vocabulary Be Learned in the Course?
      4. How Will Vocabulary Learning Be Assessed?
      5. Conclusion
      6. References
      7. Suggested Readings
    8. Theses and Dissertations in English for Specific Purposes
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    9. Third Language Acquisition
      1. The Scope of Third Language Acquisition
      2. Diversity of Third Language Acquisition
      3. Main Trends in Third Language Acquisition Research
      4. Final Remarks
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    10. Translanguaging
      1. Introduction
      2. Translanguaging and Language Theory
      3. Translanguaging in Education
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    11. Translation Theory
      1. General Considerations About Theory
      2. Theoretical Principles Currently Accepted in Translation Studies
      3. Conclusions Implied by These Theoretical Principles
      4. Difficulties in Formulating Translation Theory
      5. References
  27. U
    1. Uses of Language Assessments
      1. Introduction
      2. Classification of Test Uses
      3. Test Use and Test Validity
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
    2. Using the First Language and Code Switching in Second Language Classrooms
      1. References
      2. Suggested Reading
  28. V
    1. Validation of Language Assessments
      1. The Consensus View of Validation
      2. Major Approaches to Validation in Language Assessment
      3. Use‐Specific Validation Frameworks
      4. Prevailing Concerns in Validation Research
      5. References
    2. Varieties of English in Asia
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    3. Vocabulary and Language for Specific Purposes
      1. Investigating Vocabulary and Language for Specific Purposes
      2. Teaching and Learning Vocabulary and Language for Specialized Purposes
      3. References
      4. Suggested Readings
      5. Online Resources
    4. Vocabulary Learning Strategies
      1. What VLS Do Students Use?
      2. Are VLS Useful?
      3. Person, Task, Context, and Strategies
      4. Conclusions
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    5. Vygotsky and Second Language Acquisition
      1. Meaning in the Internal Thinking/Languaging System
      2. Methodological Approach
      3. Vygotsky and Second Language Acquisition and Development
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
      7. Note
  29. W
    1. Washback in Language Assessment
      1. References
      2. Suggested Readings
    2. World Englishes and Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages
      1. TESOL in World Englishes: Early Years
      2. World Englishes in TESOL: Early Years
      3. World Englishes and TESOL in the 21st Century
      4. Conclusion
      5. References
      6. Suggested Readings
    3. Writing and Language for Specific Purposes
      1. Writing Needs Across LSP Domains
      2. Research in Writing and LSP
      3. Pedagogy in Writing and LSP
      4. References
      5. Suggested Readings
  30. Index
  31. End User License Agreement

Product information

  • Title: The Concise Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics
  • Author(s): Carol A. Chapelle
  • Release date: January 2020
  • Publisher(s): Wiley-Blackwell
  • ISBN: 9781119147367