6.8. Relationships in Organizing Systems

In the previous sections as we surveyed the five perspectives on analyzing relationships we mentioned numerous examples where relationships had important roles in organizing systems. In this final section we examine three contexts for organizing systems where relationships are especially fundamental; the Semantic Web and Linked Data, bibliographic organizing systems, and situations involving system integration and interoperability.

6.8.1. The Semantic Web and Linked Data

In a classic 2001 paper, Tim Berners-Lee laid out a vision of a Semantic Web in which all information could be shared and processed by automated tools as well as by people.375[Web] The essential technologies for making the web more semantic and relationships among web resources more explicit are applications of XML, including RDF (§, “Resource Description Framework (RDF)”), and OWL (§6.3.3, “Ontologies”). Many tools have been developed to support more semantic encoding, but most still require substantial expertise in semantic technologies and web standards.376[Com]

[375][Web] (Berners-Lee, Hendler, and Lassila, 2001) is the classic paper, and (Shadbolt, Hall, and Berners-Lee 2006) is something of a revisionist history.

Ironically, the web was not semantic originally because Berners-Lee implemented web documents using a presentation-oriented HTML markup language. Designing HTML to be conceptually simple and easy to implement led to its rapid adoption. HTML documents can ...

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