To understand failure, you first have to understand your own reactions to failure. Reactions to failure are typically:
• Retrospective. They arise from your ability to look back on a sequence of events.
• Counterfactual. They lay out what people could or should have done to avoid the outcome that you now know about.
• Judgmental. They judge people for not doing what you believe they should have done, or for not paying enough attention to what you now know is important.
• Proximal. They focus on those people closest in time and place to (preventing) the mishap.
A Navy submarine crashed into a Japanese fishing vessel near Hawaii, sinking it and killing nine Japanese men and boys. The submarine, on a ...