CHAPTER 6

Quantifying the Total Cost of Infrastructure to Enable Environmentally Preferable Decisions: The Case of Urban Roadway Design

CONRAD A. GOSSE AND ANDRES F. CLARENS

6.1 INTRODUCTION

Ground transportation is responsible for nearly 30% of the primary energy consumption and 27% of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States [1]. Related infrastructure also results in significant material movement—every $1 million investment in roadway construction requires 9 × 104 tonnes of aggregate and 3.3 × 103 tonnes of cement [2]. In an effort to try to reduce these burdens, numerous life cycle assessments (LCAs) have been performed over the past decade to understand how specific technological choices contribute to emissions, energy ...

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