CHAPTER 9 Emerging Paradigms for User Interaction

It can be surprisingly easy to simulate intelligence in a computer. In the 1960s Joseph Weizenbaum developed the famous ELIZA program, a conversational system that uses simple language rules to simulate a Rogerian psychotherapist (Weizenbaum 1976). It responds in particular ways to mentions of keywords or phrases (e.g., “mother,” “I think”), rephrases stated concerns in a questioning fashion designed to draw people out, makes mild remarks about assertions, and so on. Weizenbaum made no claims of intelligence in ELIZA, but interactions with its simple teletype interface were sometimes quite convincing. Appearing below is an excerpt from a continuing dialog between ELIZA and a patient (available ...

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