The identification and authentication techniques mentioned in the first part of this chapter all share a common flaw: to reliably identify an individual, that person must be in the presence of the person or computer that is performing the identification. If the person is not present—if the identification is being performed by telephone, by fax, or over the Internet—then there is high potential for fraud or abuse because of replay attacks.
To understand replay attacks, consider the case of a computer that verifies its user’s identity with a fingerprint scanner. Under ideal conditions, a person sits down at the computer, presses his thumb to the scanner, and the computer verifies his identity. But consider the case shown in Figure 6-5, in which one computer acquires the fingerprint and another performs the verification. In this case, it is possible for an attacker to intercept the code for the digitized fingerprint as it moves over the network. Once the attacker has the fingerprint transmission, the attacker can use it to impersonate the victim.
Figure 6-5. When a biometric verification is performed remotely over a computer network, the identification can be compromised by replay attacks (by tampering with the computer or software that measures the biometric).
Replay attacks aren’t a problem for biometrics alone: they represent a fundamental ...