Chapter 12 discussed storage management, which primarily focuses on storage technologies and techniques for configuring storage. As discussed in that chapter, disks can be apportioned in many ways but ultimately must be formatted with a particular file system. The file system provides the environment for working with files and folders. Windows Server 2012 R2 provides FAT and NTFS as the basic file-system types. These file systems and their various extensions, which include the Resilient File System (ReFS), are discussed in this chapter.