### A.1 Definition

The use of vector analysis in the study of electromagnetic (EM) field theory results in a real economy of times and thoughts. Even more important, the vector forms help to give a clear understanding of the physical laws that mathematics describe. *Scalar* is a quantity that is characterized only by the magnitude and algebraic sign. *Vector* is the quantity defined by the scalar quantity as well as its direction. They are represented by the sign ~ underneath, for example, vectors. Thus a vector can be represented geometrically by an arrow whose direction is appropriately chosen and whose length is proportional to the magnitude of the vector.

### A.2 Operations

#### A.2.1 Right-Handed Coordinate System

A vector ...