Appendix: Vector Analysis

A.1 Definition

The use of vector analysis in the study of electromagnetic (EM) field theory results in a real economy of times and thoughts. Even more important, the vector forms help to give a clear understanding of the physical laws that mathematics describe. Scalar is a quantity that is characterized only by the magnitude and algebraic sign. Vector is the quantity defined by the scalar quantity as well as its direction. They are represented by the sign ~ underneath, for example, vectors. Thus a vector can be represented geometrically by an arrow whose direction is appropriately chosen and whose length is proportional to the magnitude of the vector.

A.2 Operations

A.2.1 Right-Handed Coordinate System

A vector ...

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