There are a large number of introductory textbooks on programming. Still, the best source for specific facts about C and examples of C programs, in the same spirit as those found in this book, is Kernighan and Ritchie’s book on the language.
The many variants on algorithms for the union-find problem of Chapter 1 are ably categorized and compared by van Leeuwen and Tarjan.
Bentley’s books describe, again in the same spirit as much of the material here, a number of detailed case studies on evaluating various approaches to developing algorithms and implementations for solving numerous interesting problems.
The classic reference on the analysis of algorithms based on asymptotic worst-case performance measures is Aho, Hopcroft, ...