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Applied Physics by S. Mani Naidu

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CHAPTER 1

Bonding in Solids

1.1 Different types of bonding in solids

A crystal consists of atoms or molecules bound by interatomic forces or bonds. The interatomic forces are basically electrostatic in nature. These forces consist of both attractive and repulsive forces. Attractive forces are between negatively and positively charged particles and repulsive forces are between same kinds of particles. The different types of bonds are due to the differences in electronic structure of the atoms. Depending on strength and directionality, bonds are divided into two types: (1) primary and (2) secondary bonds. Primary bonds are interatomic in nature whereas secondary bonds are intermolecular in nature. Primary bond is a direct consequence of the transfer ...

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