List of Figures

1.1 Hierarchy of Bayesian Estimation Tracker Filters.

2.1 Example of Two-Dimensional Cartesian Grid of Axial Vector Points.

2.2 Example of Three-Dimensional Cartesian Grid of Axial Vector Points.

2.3 Two-Dimensional Points for Multidimensional Sterling's Approximation.

2.4 Simplex Figures in up to Three Dimensions.

2.5 One-Dimensional Gaussian pdf Example.

2.6 Example of a Two-Dimensional Gaussian PDF.

2.7 An Example of a One-Dimensional Gaussian CDF.

2.8 An Example of a Two-Dimensional Gaussian CDF.

2.9 Effects of an Affine Transformation on a Gaussian Probability Density Function.

3.1 Depiction of One Step in the Recursive Bayesian Posterior Density Estimation Procedure.

3.2 General Block Diagram for Recursive Point Estimation Process.

4.1 Methodology for Development and Evaluation of Tracking Algorithms.

4.2 DIFAR Buoy Geometry.

4.3 Ships Track with DIFAR Buoy Field and the Associated Bearings for Two Buoys.

4.4 DIFAR Sensor Signal Processing.

4.5 The Spread of Bearing Observations from a DIFAR Buoy from 100 Monte Carlo Runs for Four SNRs.

4.6 DIFAR Likelihood Density for a BT of 10 and SNR from −10 to +10 dB.

5.1 Block Diagram of the Process Flow for the Bayesian Estimator xix with Gaussian Probability Densities.

6.1 Block Diagram of the LKF Process for a Single DIFAR Buoy.

6.2 Comparison of the LKF Bearing Estimates with the True Bearing for One DIFAR Buoy.

7.1 The Geometry Used for Initialization.

7.2 A Comparison of the Estimated Track ...

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