nmap of the entire port range, with service discovery, is always a good place to start when gathering information on a target. Nmap is the network scanning tool of choice and has been for many years. It is still very powerful and very relevant. It is available on most platforms, including Kali, BlackArch, and even Windows.
Metasploit Framework (MSF) is a penetration testing framework commonly used by security professionals. Besides being a fantastic collection of easy-to-deliver exploits, it can also help to organize engagements. For target mapping specifically, you can leverage the workspace feature and neatly store your Nmap scan results in a database.
If the Kali Linux instance is fresh or Metasploit was recently ...