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Ecosystem Services and Global Trade of Natural Resources by Thomas Koellner

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11  Fair Trade, Environmental Labels, Bans and Ecosystem Services

Ulrike Grote and Pradyot R. Jena

Introduction

The rapid expansion of world trade over the last six decades has come with a growing recognition that there are significant differences across countries with respect to the choice of environmental and social standards and the use of ecosystem services. These differences may result in negative externalities and environmental problems. Meanwhile, consumers’ concerns for the sustainable use of ecosystems have increased – be they terrestrial, marine or aquatic.

As described by Levine and Chan in Chapter 2 of this volume, ecosystems like, for example, terrestrial ones, which range from natural forests to intensively managed agricultural ...

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