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Electric Machines and Drives

Book Description

Electric machines have a ubiquitous presence in our modern daily lives, from the generators that supply electricity to motors of all sizes that power countless applications. Providing a balanced treatment of the subject, Electric Machines and Drives: Principles, Control, Modeling, and Simulation takes a ground-up approach that emphasizes fundamental principles. The author carefully deploys physical insight, mathematical rigor, and computer simulation to clearly and effectively present electric machines and drive systems.

Detailing the fundamental principles that govern electric machines and drives systems, this book:

  • Describes the laws of induction and interaction and demonstrates their fundamental roles with numerous examples
  • Explores dc machines and their principles of operation
  • Discusses a simple dynamic model used to develop speed and torque control strategies
  • Presents modeling, steady state based drives, and high-performance drives for induction machines, highlighting the underlying physics of the machine
  • Includes coverage of modeling and high performance control of permanent magnet synchronous machines
  • Highlights the elements of power electronics used in electric drive systems
  • Examines simulation-based optimal design and numerical simulation of dynamical systems

Suitable for a one semester class at the senior undergraduate or a graduate level, the text supplies simulation cases that can be used as a base and can be supplemented through simulation assignments and small projects. It includes end-of-chapter problems designed to pick up on the points presented in chapters and develop them further or introduce additional aspects. The book provides an understanding of the fundamental laws of physics upon which electric machines operate, allowing students to master the mathematical skills that their modeling and analysis requires.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title Page
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication Page
  6. Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Author
  10. 1 Physics of Electric Machines
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Laws of Induction and Interaction: A Qualitative View
    3. 1.3 Induction and Interaction: A Closer Look
      1. 1.3.1 Induction of Voltage in a Coil
      2. 1.3.2 Induced Current and Consideration of the Law of Interaction
      3. 1.3.3 A Simple Electric Motor: Law of Interaction in Action
      4. 1.3.4 Laws of Induction and Interaction in a Combined Case
    4. 1.4 Energy Conversion in Electromechanical Systems
      1. 1.4.1 Use of Law of Interaction for Calculating Torque
      2. 1.4.2 Analysis of Energy Conversion Using the Law of Conservation of Energy
      3. 1.4.3 Energy Conversion in a Linear System
    5. 1.5 Nonlinear Phenomena in Magnetic Circuits
      1. 1.5.1 Solution for a Linear Core
      2. 1.5.2 Solution for a Nonlinear Core
      3. 1.5.3 Inclusion of Hysteresis
    6. 1.6 Closing Remarks
    7. Problems
    8. References
  11. 2 Principles of Alternating Current Machines
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 Arrangement of Windings in AC Machines
      1. 2.2.1 Concentrated Windings
      2. 2.2.2 Short-Pitched Windings
      3. 2.2.3 Distributed Windings
      4. 2.2.4 Sinusoidally Distributed Windings
    3. 2.3 Poly-Phase Machine Windings
      1. 2.3.1 Three-Phase Concentrated Windings
      2. 2.3.2 Three-Phase Sinusoidally Distributed Windings
    4. 2.4 Increasing the Number of Poles
      1. 2.4.1 A Single-Phase Multipole Winding
      2. 2.4.2 Three-Phase Arrangement
      3. 2.4.3 Rotating Field of a Multipole Machine
    5. 2.5 Examples of Winding Arrangements
    6. 2.6 Winding Inductances
      1. 2.6.1 Self and Mutual Inductances of a Simple Round-Rotor Machine
      2. 2.6.2 Self and Mutual Inductances of a Salient Pole Machine
      3. 2.6.3 Machine Inductances with Distributed Windings
      4. 2.6.4 Methods for Analysis of AC Machines
    7. Problems
  12. 3 Principles of Direct Current Machines
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Elementary Direct Current Machine
      1. 3.2.1 Induction of Voltage and Its Rectification in a DC Machine
      2. 3.2.2 Process and Implications of Commutation
    3. 3.3 Field and Armature Interaction in a DC Machine
    4. 3.4 Dynamic Modeling of a Separately Excited DC Machine
    5. 3.5 Steady State Observations and a Lead to Drive Principles
      1. 3.5.1 Steady State Operation
      2. 3.5.2 Development of a Drive Strategy
    6. 3.6 Closed-Loop Speed Control of DC Machines
      1. 3.6.1 Elementary Speed Control Loop via Armature Voltage
      2. 3.6.2 Variable Speed Drive with an Inner Loop Current Control
    7. 3.7 Converter Circuits for Speed Control
    8. 3.8 Closing Remarks
    9. Problems
    10. References
  13. 4 Induction Machine Modeling
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Machine Equations in the ABC Phase Domain
    3. 4.3 Reference Frame Transformation of Machine Equations
      1. 4.3.1 Principles of Reference Frame Transformation
      2. 4.3.2 Transformation of Flux Linkage and Voltage Equations
      3. 4.3.3 Transformation of Electromagnetic Torque Equation
    4. 4.4 Derivation of a Steady State Model
    5. 4.5 Equivalent Circuit Parameter Determination and Preparation
    6. 4.6 Closing Remarks
    7. Problems
    8. References
  14. 5 Steady State Induction Machine Drives
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Analysis of the Steady State Model
    3. 5.3 Lead to the Development of Drive Strategies
    4. 5.4 Stator Voltage Control
    5. 5.5 Stator Frequency Control
    6. 5.6 Constant Terminal Volts/Hertz Control
    7. 5.7 Controlled Stator Current Operation
    8. 5.8 Closing Remarks
    9. Problems
    10. References
  15. 6 High-Performance Control of Induction Machines
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 Field-Oriented Control (Vector Control)
      1. 6.2.1 Alternative Implementation Methods
      2. 6.2.2 Other Types of Field-Oriented Control
    3. 6.3 Direct Torque Control
      1. 6.3.1 Principles of Direct Torque Control
      2. 6.3.2 Stator Flux and Electromagnetic Torque Estimator
    4. 6.4 Closing Remarks
    5. Problems
    6. References
  16. 7 High-Performance Control of Synchronous Machines
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Three-Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine Modeling
      1. 7.2.1 Development of a Model in the ABC Domain
      2. 7.2.2 Derivation of the Torque Equation
      3. 7.2.3 Machine Equations in the Rotor Reference Frame
      4. 7.2.4 Development of a Steady State Model
    3. 7.3 Torque Control of a PMSM
      1. 7.3.1 Principles of Torque and Speed Control
      2. 7.3.2 Practical Considerations
    4. 7.4 Closing Remarks
    5. Problems
    6. References
  17. 8 Power Electronic Circuits for Electric Motor Drives
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Conversion from an AC Source
      1. 8.2.1 Three-Phase AC-DC Converters
      2. 8.2.2 AC-AC Conversion: Three-Phase Cycloconverters
    3. 8.3 Conversion from a DC Source
      1. 8.3.1 Switching Cell of a Two-Level Voltage-Source Converter
      2. 8.3.2 Crafting a Controlled DC Output Voltage
      3. 8.3.3 Crafting a Controlled AC Output Voltage
      4. 8.3.4 Crafting a Controlled AC Output Current
      5. 8.3.5 AC-DC-AC Converters
    4. 8.4 Practical Considerations for Power Electronic Circuits
      1. 8.4.1 Torque Vibrations
      2. 8.4.2 Switching Losses
      3. 8.4.3 Noise and Electromagnetic Interference
    5. 8.5 Closing Remarks
    6. Problems
    7. References
  18. 9 Simulation-Based Design of Electric Drive Systems
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Principles of Simulation-Based Optimization
      1. 9.2.1 Design of a Suitable Objective Function
      2. 9.2.2 Requirements for a Nonlinear Optimization Algorithm
    3. 9.3 Example Cases of Simulation-Based Optimal Design of Electric Drive Systems
      1. 9.3.1 Design of an Indirect Vector-Controlled Induction Machine Drive
      2. 9.3.2 Multiobjective Optimization
      3. 9.3.3 Multiple Optimal Solutions
    4. 9.4 Closing Remarks
    5. References
  19. Appendix A: Numerical Simulation of Dynamical Systems
  20. Appendix B: Power Semiconductor Devices
  21. Appendix C: Trigonometric Identities
  22. Index