Essential Principles of Image Sensors

Book Description

Providing a succinct introduction to the systemization, noise sources, and signal processes of image sensor technology, Essential Principles of Image Sensors discusses image information and its four factors: space, light intensity, wavelength, and time. Featuring clarifying and insightful illustrations, this must-have text:

  • Explains how image sensors convert optical image information into image signals
  • Treats space, wavelength, and time as digitized built-in coordinate points in image sensors and systems
  • Details the operational principles, pixel technology, and evolution of CCD, MOS, and CMOS sensors with updated technology
  • Describes sampling theory, presenting unique figures demonstrating the importance of phase
  • Explores causes for the decline of image information quality

In a straightforward manner suitable for beginners and experts alike, Essential Principles of Image Sensors covers key topics related to digital imaging including semiconductor physics, component elements necessary for image sensors, silicon as a sensitive material, noises in sensors, and more.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright
  4. Contents
  5. 1 Task of Imaging and Role of Image Sensors
    1. 1.1 Factors Constructing Image Information
    2. 1.2 Image Sensor Output and Structure of Image Signal
      1. 1.2.1 Monochrome Still Images
      2. 1.2.2 Color Still Images
      3. 1.2.3 Color Moving Images
    3. 1.3 Functional Elements of Image Sensors
    4. References
  6. 2 Device Elements and Circuits for Image Sensors
    1. 2.1 Device Element Components
      1. 2.1.1 Foundation of Silicon Device Physics
      2. 2.1.2 pn-Junction
      3. 2.1.3 MOS Structure
      4. 2.1.4 Buried MOS Structure
      5. 2.1.5 Photogate
      6. 2.1.6 Photodiode
      7. 2.1.7 Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode
    2. 2.2 Silicon as a Photosensitive Material
      1. 2.2.1 np Photodiode on p-Type Substrate
      2. 2.2.2 npn Photodiode on p-Well
    3. 2.3 Circuit Components
      1. 2.3.1 Floating Diffusion Amplifier
      2. 2.3.2 Source Follower Amplifier
      3. 2.3.3 Correlated Double Sampling Circuit
    4. References
  7. 3 Major Types of Noise in Image Sensors
    1. 3.1 Amplitude of Noise
    2. 3.2 Circuitry Noise (kTC Noise)
    3. 3.3 Transistor Noise
      1. 3.3.1 1/f Noise
      2. 3.3.2 Thermal Noise
      3. 3.3.3 Random Telegraph Noise
    4. 3.4 Shot Noise
    5. 3.5 FDA Noise Reduction by CDS
    6. References
  8. 4 Integration Period and Scanning Mode
    1. 4.1 Progressive Mode
    2. 4.2 Interlaced Mode
    3. 4.3 Electronic Shutter Mode
  9. 5 Types of Image Sensors
    1. 5.1 CCD Sensors
      1. 5.1.1 Principle of CCDs
        1. 5.1.1.1 Interline Transfer CCDs
        2. 5.1.1.2 Basic Pixel Structure of IT-CCD
      2. 5.1.2 Pixel Technology of IT-CCD
        1. 5.1.2.1 Vertical Overflow Drain Structure
        2. 5.1.2.2 Depleted Photodiode and Transfer Mechanism
        3. 5.1.2.3 Buried Photodiode/Pinned Photodiode
      3. 5.1.3 Progress of CCD Sensor
        1. 5.1.3.1 Frame Transfer CCD
        2. 5.1.3.2 Frame-Interline Transfer CCD
    2. 5.2 MOS Sensors
      1. 5.2.1 Principle of MOS Sensors
      2. 5.2.2 Pixel Technology of MOS Sensors
      3. 5.2.3 Progress in MOS Sensors
        1. 5.2.3.1 Pixel Interpolation Array Imager
        2. 5.2.3.2 Transversal Signal Line Imager
    3. 5.3 CMOS Sensors
      1. 5.3.1 Principle of CMOS Sensors
      2. 5.3.2 Pixel Technology of CMOS Sensors
        1. 5.3.2.1 Three-Transistor Pixel Configuration
        2. 5.3.2.2 Four-Transistor Pixel Configuration
        3. 5.3.2.3 Shared Pixel Architecture
      3. 5.3.3 Progress in CMOS Sensors
        1. 5.3.3.1 Noise Reduction Circuits in Analog Output Sensor
        2. 5.3.3.2 Digital Output Sensors
        3. 5.3.3.3 Sensitivity Improvement Technology
        4. 5.3.3.4 Organic Sensors
    4. 5.4 Electronic Shutter
      1. 5.4.1 Electronic Shutter of CCD Sensors
      2. 5.4.2 Electronic Shutter of MOS and CMOS Sensors
    5. 5.5 Comparison of Situation and Prospects of Each Sensor Type
    6. References
  10. 6 Impacts of Digitization by Built-In Coordinate Points on Image Information Quality
    1. 6.1 Sampling and Sampling Theorem
    2. 6.2 Sampling in Space Domain
    3. 6.3 Sampling in Time Domain
    4. 6.4 Sampling in Wavelength Domain and Color Information
    5. References
  11. 7 Technologies to Improve Image Information Quality
    1. 7.1 Light Intensity Information
      1. 7.1.1 Sensitivity
      2. 7.1.2 Dynamic Range
        1. 7.1.2.1 Hyper-D CCD
        2. 7.1.2.2 CMOS Image Sensor with Lateral Overflow Capacitor
    2. 7.2 Space Information
    3. 7.3 Time Information
      1. 7.3.1 Frame-Based Sensors
        1. 7.3.1.1 Parallel Output–Type Sensor
        2. 7.3.1.2 Column-Parallel ADC-Type Sensor
        3. 7.3.1.3 Burst-Type Sensor
        4. 7.3.1.4 Coexistence Type of Burst and Continuous Imaging Modes
      2. 7.3.2 Event-Driven Sensor
    4. 7.4 Color and Wavelength Information
      1. 7.4.1 Single-Chip Color Camera System
      2. 7.4.2 Multiband Camera System
      3. 7.4.3 Hyperspectral Imaging System
    5. References
  12. 8 Imaging Systems
    1. 8.1 Deteriorating Elements of Image Information Quality
    2. 8.2 Signal Processing
      1. 8.2.1 Defect Correction, Brightness Correction
      2. 8.2.2 White Balance
      3. 8.2.3 Demosaicking
      4. 8.2.4 Color Conversion
      5. 8.2.5 Color and Tone Matching
      6. 8.2.6 Noise Reduction
      7. 8.2.7 Edge Enhancement
      8. 8.2.8 Image Format
      9. 8.2.9 Problem of DSP Correction Dependence Syndrome
    3. 8.3 Three-Chip Color Camera System
    4. References
  13. Epilogue
  14. Index

Product Information

  • Title: Essential Principles of Image Sensors
  • Author(s): Takao Kuroda
  • Release date: December 2017
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781351831307