Picking up where we left off in Exploration 18, the next step to improving the word-counting program is to update it, so that it ignores case differences when counting. For example, the program should count The just as it does the. This is a classic problem in computer programming. C++ offers some rudimentary help but lacks some important fundamental pieces. This Exploration takes a closer look at this deceptively tricky issue.

Simple Cases

Western European languages have long made use of capital (or majuscule) letters and minuscule letters. The more familiar terms—uppercase and lowercase—arise from the early days ...

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