1 Internet of Things (IoT) and New Computing Paradigms

Chii Chang Satish Narayana Srirama and Rajkumar Buyya

1.1 Introduction

The Internet of Things (IoT) [1] represents a comprehensive environment that interconnects a large number of heterogeneous physical objects or things such as appliances, facilities, animals, vehicles, farms, factories etc. to the Internet, in order to enhance the efficiency of the applications such as logistics, manufacturing, agriculture, urban computing, home automation, ambient assisted living, and various real‐time ubiquitous computing applications.

Commonly, an IoT system follows the architecture of the Cloud‐centric Internet of Things (CIoT) in which the physical objects are represented in the form of Web resources that are managed by the servers in the global Internet [2]. Fundamentally, in order to interconnect the physical entities to the Internet, the system will utilize various front‐end devices such as wired or wireless sensors, actuators, and readers to interact with them. Further, the front‐end devices have the Internet connectivity via the mediate gateway nodes such as Internet modems, routers, switches, cellular base stations, and so on. In general, the common IoT system involves three major technologies: embedded systems, middleware, and cloud services, where the embedded systems provide intelligence to the front‐end devices, middleware interconnects the heterogeneous embedded systems of front‐end devices to the cloud and finally, ...

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