3 Integrating IoT + Fog + Cloud Infrastructures: System Modeling and Research Challenges

Guto Leoni Santos, Matheus Ferreira, Leylane Ferreira, Judith Kelner, Djamel Sadok, Edison Albuquerque, Theo Lynn and Patricia Takako Endo

3.1 Introduction

There is widespread recognition, from academia, industry, and policymakers, that social media, cloud computing, big data, and associated analytics, mobile technologies, and the Internet of Things (IoT) are transforming how society operates and interacts with technology and each other [1, 2]. Often referred to as the Internet of Everything (IoE) or “Third IT Platform,” these technologies presage a future of greater inter‐dependencies between people, devices, and the infrastructure that supports these relationships. Cisco estimates that there are IoE, with estimates of 8–10 billion connected today [3].

While cloud computing has been a key enabling technology for the IoT, a small increase in the percentage of connected or cyber‐physical objects represents dramatic change in the feature space of computing and a potential tsunami of computation and hyper‐connectivity, which today's infrastructure will struggle to accommodate at historic levels of quality of service (QoS). Large‐scale distributed control systems, geo‐distributed applications, time‐dependent mobile applications, and applications that require very low and predictable latency or interoperability between service providers are just some of the IoT application categories ...

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